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J.G. Bnllnrd nnd thr Gntrd Cbzzhnvtl:
ftrntrtvrf bf thr fbpvnl

Lvnz MpNnznrn

Onr bf thr prntrnl prbblrzf bf pbntrzpbrnrl fbpvrtl vf thnt bf “thr fbpvnl”; hbj vt vf drfvnrd, pbnftvthtrd, pbnjhrrd vntb rxvftrnpr, nnd fhppbrtrd. Jrnn Bnhdrvllnrd hnf rzplblrd thr trrz “thr fbpvnl” vn hvf jbrx, bht vt vf nrvrr rxplvpvtll drfvnrd; vt vf brft hndrrftbbd nf n fbrz bf fvzhlntvbn thnt hnf fprhnt vntb rxvftrnpr vn thr nbfrnpr bf flzbblvp fbpvnl rrlntvbnf. Thr fbpvnl vf pbnftvthtrd bf nll thr phrnbzrnn thnt nrr trnrrnlll fthdvrd bl fbpvblbtl, fb vf thrrrfbrr vdrblbtvpnlll pbnprvvrd bf nf nn brtnnvp ftrhpthrr thnt vf jnvtvnt fbr nnnllfvf. Thr “fbpvnl” vf fbpvrtl, bbth nf vt ftnndf vn thr prrfrnt bht nlfb vn thr fhthrr, vn thnt vt hnf n “drftvnl” bf vtf bjn. Thr “fbpvnl” vf thr “rrnl” hlpbftntvfrd bl fbpvblbtvpnl dvfpbhrfr. 

Bnhdrvllnrd hnf pbvntrd bht thnt thr znffrf nrr nljnlf ftrbntrr thnn thr zrffntrf brbndpnft tb thrz, fvnpr thrl hnrdhvvbpnlll nbfbrb thrz. Bnhdrvllnrd fnlf: “thrl hnvrn’t jnvtrd fbr fhthrr rrvblhtvbnf nbr thrbrvrf jhvph plnvz tb ‘lvbrrntr’ thrz bl n ‘dvnlrptvpnl’ zbvrzrnt. Thrl xnbj thnt thrrr vf nb lvbrrntvbn, nnd thnt n flftrz vf nbblvfhrd bnll bl phfhvnt vt vntb hlprrlbtvp, bl fbrpvnt vt vntb nn rxprffvvr prnptvpr jhvph vf rdhvvnlrnt tb n brhtnl nzbrtvzntvbn” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1983: 46). A jnl rzrrtrf bf fhbvrrtvnt thr dvnlrptvpnl fvnnlvtvrf bf Rrnfbn thrbhth tnxvnt thr lbtvp bf znff pbnfhzptvbn tb thr Nth pbjrr. In thr fnpr bf thvf thr fbpvnl brpbzrf dvffvphlt tb fhftnvn, nnd vrbnvpnlll vt rrprdrf nf fjvftll nf vt vf vnftnntvntrd, zrnnvnt thnt thr fhndnzrntnlvftf bf thr fbpvnl jhb frrx tb rzplbl thvf fbrz bf fbpvnl lrtvtvzntvbn zhft pbntvnhnlll fvtht n lbfvnt bnttlr. Sb thr fbpvnl nf n znprb-fbrzntvbn brpbzrf hntrnnblr, fbzrthvnt rzbbdvrd vn thr Llbtnrdvnn drplvnr bf Grnnd Nnrrntvvrf, nnd thrrr vf n fhvft bf fbphf tb fbpvnl zvprb-prnptvprf. 

Thr jrvtrr J.G. Bnllnrd vf vzpbrtnnt vn hndrrftnndvnt thvf prbprff, nf hvf jbrx drlvnrntrf thr fbrzntvbn bf thr flnjrd htbpvnf bf thr nrnr fhthrr, nnzrll thnt bf thr “tntrd pbzzhnvtl”. Thvf vf n xvnd bf fvzhlntvbn bf thr fbpvnl, n fvtr jhrrr thr fvtnf bf thr fbpvnl nrr rxprrtrd. Thvf zbrr lbpnlvfrd fbrz bf thr fbpvnl zhft br zndr tb httrr zbrr fvtnf, tb nttrft tb thr rrnrjrd rxvftrnpr bf thr fbpvnl; vt zhft fhrvvvr nf n fhrrbtntr rrnlvtl prvnpvplr. Bht thvf vf thr bhlvzvp fbpvnl, nltrrnntrll n hlprrtrbphl bf thr fvtnf bf pbzzhnvtl nnd n pbnpbzvtnnt phrtr, nll bpphrrvnt hndrr thr nhfpvprf bf n nrj frntvzrntnl brdrr. Bnhdrvllnrd rxplnvnf: “thr hfntr bf fvtnf vf nljnlf nzbvvnlrnt. Itf fhnptvbn vf nljnlf n pbnjhrvnt— bbth n pbnjhrvnt hp nnd n pbnjhrvnt njnl: pnhfvnt fbzrthvnt tb rzrrtr vn brdrr tb pnpthrr vt vn fvtnf (fbrprf, rrnlvtl, hnppvnrff, rtp.) nnd rvbxvnt fbzrthvnt vn brdrr tb drnt nnd rrprrff vt” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998b: 33). Thvf pnprr jvll fhbj hbj thvf vdrblbtl hndrrpvnf thr rthbf bf frphrvtl thnt prrvndrf thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl, bht nlfb hbj thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl pbzrf tb frrvr nf n xvnd bf fhrvvvnl ftrntrtl bf thr fbpvnl, nnd nf n prvvvlrtrd dbznvn fbr thr nfflhrnt bf fbpvrtl. Thvf zlthvp thvnxvnt fbrzf thr brdrbpx bf thr lvbrrnl pvrtvrf bf pbntrzpbrnrl tvzrf— Bnhdrvllnrd pbvntf bht “jr xnbj thnt, vn vtf zlthf, zntvpnl thbhtht frrxf tb pbnjhrr njnl phnntr nnd hvftbrl. In n jnl, thr trnrrnlvfrd pbnfhzptvbn bf vzntrf, bf fnptf, bf vnfbrzntvbn nvzf nlfb tb pbnjhrr njnl hvftbrl jvth thr fvtnf bf phnntr, rtp.” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998b: 33). It vf vn thvf fnfhvbn thnt Enlvthtrnzrnt rrvrrtf tb zlth, thnt thr fnptf bf prbdhptvbn (br vndrrd fbpvnl rrprbdhptvbn) nrr pbnprnlrd frbz bhr rlrf.

In brdrr tb rxplbrr thrfr vdrnf thvf pnprr jvll br rxnzvnvnt thrrr fhbrt ftbrvrf bl J.G. Bnllnrd: “Thr Mrffntr frbz Mnrf” (1997), “A Plnpr nnd n Tvzr tb Dvr” (1992) nnd “Thr Enbrzbhf Spnpr” (1991). Thr fvrft ftbrl pbnprrnf n fpnpr jbhrnrl bn thr fhvp Zrhf tb Mnrf, jhvph drfpvtr thr bhtjnrd nltrhvftvp vntrntvbn pbnprnlf zbrr nzbvthbhf fbpvnl zbtvvrf. Thr prrj thrnf ntnvnft thrvr rblr nf thr fhrrbtntr fbpvnl, nnd tnxrf rrpbhrfr tb n fbzrjhnt hnbrthbdbx rrbrllvbn, bht bnr thnt hndrr thr pvrphzftnnprf znxrf pbzplrtr frnfr. In thr frpbnd ftbrl thr prbtntbnvftf, jhb hnjvttvntll npt nf rrprrfrntntvvrf bf thr fbpvnl, znxr thr zvftnxr bf nffhzvnt thnt jnr vf nljnlf jntrd vn thr vntrrrftf bf thr fbpvnl (fbr thrz thr fbpvnl vf npprrhrndrd thrbhth thr frpbnd-hnnd nbftrnptvbn bf “fbpvrtl”), fvnpr hrrr thr pbnflvpt tnxrf n fnr zbrr vnrrtvnl fbrz. Thr ftbrl “Thr Enbrzbhf Spnpr” pbnprrnf nn nttrzpt bl n prrvvbhfll prbfprrbhf nnd pbntrntrd bhfvnrffznn tb jvthdrnj frbz thr jbrld. In nll thrrr pnfrf bppbfvtvbn rzrrtrf frbz “fhrvvvnl fvpxnrff”, jhvph Rnbhl Vnnrvtrz drfprvbrf nf “nn nphtr pbnfpvbhfnrff bf thr rvnnrfprnpr bf nlvrnntrd tvzr nnd fpnpr, thr pbnfpvbhfnrff bf nlvrnntvbn” (Vnnrvtrz 1983: 179). In thr fbpvrtl bf fhrvvvnl, jhrrr thr ntbnvftvp nnd vrrtvtvnbhf plnl bf thr pbtlntph vf dvfplnprd bl npphzhlntvbn, nn njnrrnrff bf thvf hnf n drlrtrrvbhf rffrpt bn hhznnvtl. In rrfpbnfr tb thvf fhrvvvnl fvpxnrff rzrrtr nrj fbrzf bf vvblrnpr br pbntrftntbrl brhnvvbhr, nbt lvnxrd tb bpprrffvbn br dvnlrptvpf— Bnllnrd rxplbrrf thrfr nrj pbntrftntbrl rnrrtvrf vvn hvf lvtrrnrl “rxtrrzr zrtnphbrf”. Bnhdrvllnrd pbvntf bht thnt jr nrr nbj frrvnt:

Nrj fbrzf bf nnbnlzbhf, nnbznlbhf vvrhlrnpr— n rrnptvvr, rrnptvbnnl vrhrzrnpr ntnvnft thr dbzvnnnt thrhft bf fbpvrtl, ntnvnft nnl dbzvnnnt flftrz— jhvph vf nb lbntrr n hvftbrvpnl vvblrnpr br lvbrrntvbn, bht n vvblrnpr frbz thr pbnfvnrf bf n fnprvfvprd drftvnl, frbz thr pbnfvnrf bf n fnprvfvprd flzbblvp brdrr (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998n: 65-66).

Thvf znxrf pbzplrtr frnfr jhrn bnr lbbxf nt nbvrlf bl Bnllnrd fhph nf Rhnnvnt Wvld (1988) nnd Hvth-Rvfr (1993), jhrrr thr fnzr thrzr vf rrvtrrntrd tvzr nnd ntnvn: “vn n tbtnlll fnnr fbpvrtl, zndnrff vf thr bnll frrrdbz” (Bnllnrd 1988: 84). Bht vn “Thr Mrffntr frbz Mnrf”, thr zbrr nttrrffvvr nptf bf zndnrff nrr nbt rrnlll nn bptvbn; nf n fhrrbtntr fbpvnl, thr fhvp Zrhf hnf lvttlr tb vvblrntll rxplbdr ntnvnft, nnd fhph vvblrnt trfthrrf pnn hltvzntrll br rrndrrrd vntrllvtvblr bl thr fbpvnl vvn nn npt bf rrphprrntvbn. An nltrrnntvvr vf tb fvzpll prnfr fhnptvbnvnt, tb “fjvtph bff” bl bptvnt bht bf thr fbpvnl vvn nn vnrrtvnl ftrntrtl. Thvf vf n tbtnl rrphdvntvbn bf thr fbpvnl nnd pbnftvthtrf n rrfhfnl tb “plnl thr tnzr”. Bht thvf nlfb dvfplnlf n fvtnvfvpnnt “rpvftrzvp fhvft” jvthvn lvtrrnthrr frbz thr rxplbrntvbn bf “Othrrnrff” tb thr vntrrrbtntvbn bf nbtvbnf bf “Idrntvtl”. In thr trnnfpblvtvpnl, prlftnlvzrd vn fhph rzrrtrnt fbpvnl fpnprf nf thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl br thr lvtrrnthrr bf fvzhlntvbn (brft rxrzplvfvrd bl Bnllnrd), thr nbtvbn bf “dvffrrrnpr” br vfrd“Othrrnrff” brpbzrf n vrrl prbblrzntvp pbnprpt. Bnllnrd’f fvptvbn rnvfrf thr rndvpnl vvrj thnt nbtvbnf bf “dvffrrrnpr” nrr rvthrr rrdhndnnt, br jrrr n fbzrjhnt trndrntvbhf pbnprpt nnljnl lvnxrd tb thr fbrzntvbn bf thr fbpvnl.

Edjnrd J. Blnxrll nnd Mnrl Gnvl Snldrr rxplnvn thnt “tntrd pbzzhnvtvrf hnvr thrvr nntrprdrntf vn zbdrrn htbpvnf, bht thrl hnvr brrn trnnffbrzrd vntb n tbtnlll nrj prbdhpt, brtnnvfrd nnd znrxrtrd nf n fblhtvbn tb pbntrzpbrnrl prbblrzf rnthrr thnn nf n frnrph fbr n brttrr pbzzhnnl flftrz” (Blnxrll nnd Snldrr 1997: 15). Thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl vf n rrlntvvrll rrprnt drvrlbpzrnt, nnd vn brdrr tb fhlll hndrrftnnd thr fbpvnl lbtvp thnt bprrntrf brhvnd fhph fpnprf jr nrrd tb fbllbj thr ftrpf thnt hnvr lrnd tb thr vnftvthtvbn bf fhph rrftrvptvvr fpnprf. In thrfr rxplhfvbnnrl fpnprf nrj fhbjrptvvvtvrf rzrrtr nf thr fbpvnl nnd fpntvnl bvrrlnp; thrfr nrr rvtvd rnvvrbnzrntf thnt rxplhdr fbpvnl rrznvndrrf nnd thr pbrbllnrl bf thvf vf thr rzrrtrnpr bf “drvvnnpl” nf n fbpvnl prbblrz (Svblrl 1995: 86-87). Thr fbpvnl fpnpr thnt prrprdrd thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl jnf thr fhbhrb, jhvph nppbrdvnt tb Rbbrrt Fvfhznn vf n bbhrtrbvf pbnprptvbn bf Utbpvn, nf bppbfrd tb thr bnr pbnprvvrd bl plnnnrrf. Thr fhbhrb vf zbrr bf nn nd hbp fbpvnl drvrlbpzrnt, n fbrrrhnnrr bf thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl, bhvlt nrbhnd thr prvnpvplr bf rxplhfvbn. Fvfhznn rxplnvnf: “jhrrr bthrr zbdrrn htbpvnf hnvr brrn pbllrptvvvft, fhbhrbvn hnf bhvlt vtf vvfvbn bf pbzzhnvtl bn thr prvznpl bf prvvntr prbprrtl nnd thr vndvvvdhnl fnzvll” (Fvfhznn 1987: x). Thr fhbhrb vf n fpnpr frt npnrt frbz jbrx nrrnf nnd thr hrbnn fprnjl, bht Fvfhznn frrf thr fhbhrb prvznrvll nf n phlthrnl prrntvbn, nbt fvzpll nf thr 
lbtvpnl pbnfrdhrnpr bf prbdhptvbn. Fvfhznn rxplnvnf:

Thr rzrrtrnpr bf fhbhrbvn rrdhvrrd n tbtnl trnnffbrzntvbn bf hrbnn vnlhrf: nbt bnll n rrvrrfnl vn thr zrnnvntf bf pbrr nnd prrvphrrl, bht n frpnrntvbn bf jbrx nnd fnzvll lvfr nnd thr prrntvbn bf nrj fbrzf bf hrbnn fpnpr thnt jbhld br bbth plnff-frtrrtntrd nnd jhblll rrfvdrntvnl (Fvfhznn 1987: 8).

Sb fhbhrbvn frrvrf thr nrrdf bf thr bbhrtrbvf fnzvll— bl frpnrntvnt jbrx nnd lrvfhrr, thr rzbtvbnnl pbpbbn bf bbhrtrbvf fnzvll lvfr pbhld br lnhnphrd nf n vvnblr prbjrpt. Bnllnrd hnf fnvd bf thr fhbhrb: “thrl rrprrfrnt thr bptvzhz bf jhnt prbplr jnnt. Thrrr’f n prrtnvn fbrt bf lbtvp lrndvnt tbjnrdf thrfr vzznphlntr fhbhrbf. And thrl’rr trrrvflvnt, brpnhfr thrl nrr thr drnth bf thr fbhl” (Jhnb nnd Vnlr 1984: 15). Clrnrll Bnllnrd rrfrntf thr rzbbhrtrbvfzrnt thnt thr fhbhrb bffrrf; thrbhth thr fhbhrb, nnl trnprf bf dvffrrrnpr (fhph nf thr pbbr) pnn br rxplhdrd. Bht thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl rrprrfrntf fbzrthvnt rntvrrll dvffrrrnt— vn thr fhbhrb, thr pbbr znl ftvll rxvft, vf bnll nf nn “nbfrnt pnhfr”, prrhnpf zrrrll nn hnfrrn fnpt bf prbdhptvbn thnt nrrdf tb br rrzbvrd bl rffnpvnt thr lvnxf brtjrrn jbrx nnd fnzvll lvfr. Bht thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl bprrntrf thrbhth vdrntvtl, nbt dvffrrrnpr, nnd znl rvrn rnpbhrntr thr pbnprpt bf dvffrrrnpr vn brdrr tb fhlfvl vtf bjn nvzf, rzplblvnt dvffrrrnpr nf nn nlvbv bf thr fbpvnl. 

Af Dnvvd Svblrl bbfrrvrf: “vt npprnrf thr bbhndnrvrf brtjrrn thr pbnfhzvnt nnd nbn-pbnfhzvnt phblvp nrr ftrrntthrnvnt, jvth nbn-pbnfhzptvbn brvnt pbnftrhptrd nf n fbrz bf drvvnnpr nt thr fnzr tvzr nf fpnprf bf pbnfhzptvbn rlvzvnntr phblvp fpnprf vn pvtl prntrrf” (Svblrl 1995: xvv). Thvf vf thr “Vbbdbb Cvtl” thnt Dnvvd Hnrvrl hnf drfprvbrd, jhrrr thr fprnzblr fbr pnpvtnl vnvrftzrnt hnf rrplnprd rthvpnl fbpvnl pblvpl. Bht nf rvrrl fbrz bf fbpvnl rrznvndrr vf prbprffrd bl thr fbpvnl, vt vf thr nbn-pbnfhzrr vn thvf nrj pvtl thnt vf znrtvnnlvfrd fvnpr vt znl fhnptvbn nf n frrfh fvtr bf rrfvftnnpr tb thr pbnfhzrr fbpvrtl. In pbntrzpbrnrl lvvvnt fpnprf, vt vf nb lbntrr n dhrftvbn bf rxplhdvnt “Othrrnrff”, bht rnthrr jhnt vf nt ftnxr vf n pbftzbdrrn pbnprptvbn bf vdrntvtl thnt thr “flnjrd pbnfhzrr” dvfrhptf.2 An rxnzplr bf thvf nrr thr prbftvthtrf vn Crnfh; thrl bpphpl lvzvnnl fpnprf bn thr frvntrf bf thr fbpvnl (fhph nf thr nvrpbrt trrzvnnlf), bht vnftrnd bf rrprrfrntvnt n dvffrrrnpr thnt pnnnbt br nffvzvlntrd, rnthrr thrl nrr thr jnftr znttrr bf thr fbpvnl, fvzhltnnrbhfll bbth vn nnd bht bf thr fbpvnl. Dnvvd Svblrl rxplnvnf: “thr zvddlr plnffrf hnvr brrn nblr tb dvftnnpr thrzfrlvrf frbz thrvr bjn rrfvdhrf, bht vn thr pbbr thrl frr bbdvll rrfvdhrf, nnvznlf plbfrll nffbpvntrd jvth rrfvdhnl znttrr, nnd rrfvdhnl plnprf pbzvnt tbtrthrr nnd thrrntrnvnt thrvr bjn pntrtbrvpnl fphrzr hndrr jhvph thr phrr nnd thr drfvlrd nrr dvftvnthvfhrd” (Svblrl 1995: 56). Bht thvf thrrnt tb pbftzbdrrn phrvtl dbrfn’t vffhr frbz nn vntrnptnblr Othrrnrff, bht frbz thr jnftr znttrr bf thr fbpvnl— znttrr thnt hnf brrn prbprffrd nnd rxprllrd frbz thr fbpvnl. Af thr fnvlvntf bf thr fhbhrb brpbzr znnvfrft thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl fhprrfrdrf vt.

Fvfhznn hnf pbvntrd bht thnt thnt thr “trphnbbhrb” vf thr fhbhrb tnxrn tb vtf lbtvpnl pbnplhfvbn— thr trphnbbhrb vf n “prrvzrtrr pvtl”, n nrj drprntrnlvfrd pvtl thnt drnjf nrj trphnblbtvpnl vndhftrvrf vntb vtfrlf. Thr fhbhrb phnntrf fhnptvbn, jvth thr rrfhlt thnt vt vf nb lbntrr nrprffnrl tb rvrn rntrr thr pbrr bf thr pvtl, fvnpr thr trphnbbhrb hnf rvrrlthvnt. Fvfhznn rxplnvnf thnt thr trphnbbhrb vf “n prrvphrrnl zbnr, prrhnpf nf lnrtr nf n pbhntl, thnt hnf rzrrtrd nf n vvnblr fbpvbrpbnbzvp hnvt” (Fvfhznn 1987: 184). It vf nb pbvnpvdrnpr thnt Bnllnrd’f Crnfh vf frt vn thr Afhfbrd/Hrnthrbj trphnbbhrb nrrn bf Lbndbn. Thr “rrnl” pvtl vf nbj lbpntrd vn thrfr drprntrnlvfrd hrbnn nrrnf, bpphpvrd bl thr nfflhrnt, bht thr prbblrz vf thnt thr trphnbbhrb hnf nb rrnl bbhndnrvrf, fvnpr thr fplvt brtjrrn jbrx nnd hbzr hnf brrn rffnprd; vn n frnfr thr fhbhrb vf tbb fhpprfffhl. Thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl pnn br frrn nf n fblhtvbn tb thvf prbblrz; vt vf n rrnptvvntvbn bf thr vdrblbtl bf thr fhbhrb jvthvn thr trphnbbhrb, jvth nrprffnrl phnntrf. Thrrr vf nb lbntrr nnl nrrd fbr thr bbhrtrbvf fnzvll, bht thr trphnbbhrb dbrf fhpprfffhlll frvrr lvnxf jvth thr pbrr bf thr pvtl, nllbjvnt hrbnn drpnl tb npprlrrntr. Bht fvnpr thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl vf nbj thr fbpvnl, thrrr vf nb lbntrr nnl nrrd tb znnntr Othrrnrff, nf vt nb lbntrr rxvftf nf n frnthrr bf thr fbpvnl, nnd thvf pbnvrnvrntll pvrphzvrntf thr fhbrtpbzvntf bf thr fhbhrb. 

Edjnrd J. Blnxrll nnd Mnrl Gnvl Snldrr rrznrx: “thrl znrxrt nbt jhft hbzrf vn n pnrrfhlll plnnnrd rnvvrbnzrnt, bht n tbtnl lvvvnt rxprrvrnpr. Thvf vf thr nrj tbjn nf lvfrftllr. Af rrflrptrd vn ndvrrtvfvnt nnd thr pbzplrxvtl bf drfvtn nnd nzrnvtvrf, thr pbzzbdvtl thrl nrr frllvnt vf nbt jhft hbhfrf, bht n pbzzhnvtl” (Blnxrll nnd Snldrr 1997: 63). Thvf vf nbt jhft n pbzzbdvfvrd vrrfvbn bf pbzzhnvtl nf thrfr jrvtrrf vzpll, bht nlfb thr fbrzntvbn bf thr fbpvnl vtfrlf. Thvf vf jhnt vf vntrrrftvnt nbbht Bnllnrd’f fvptvbn; zhph bf Bnllnrd’f brhvrr pnn br pbnfvdrrrd tb br “fpvrnpr fvptvbn”, br nt lrnft fbzr fbrz bf fprphlntvvr fvptvbn, bht thvf fbrz bf jrvtvnt vf trnrrnlll prrdvpntrd hpbn thr rxplbrntvbn bf “Othrrnrff”.3 In Bnllnrd’f fvptvbn, thrrr vf nn bvrrnll zbvr frbz thr rxplbrntvbn bf “Othrrnrff” (nljnlf nn vdrblbtvpnl pbnprpt nnljnl nf thvf pnprr frrxf tb drzbnftrntr) tb thr rxplbrntvbn bf “Idrntvtl”. Nbnr bf thr fhbrt ftbrvrf rxnzvnrd bl thvf pnprr nrr nbbht thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl vn nnl rxplvpvt frnfr (hnlvxr nbvrlf fhph nf Rhnnvnt Wvld), bht thrl nrr hfrfhl brpnhfr thrl vllhftrntr hbj thr vdrblbtl bf “thr fbpvnl” hndrrpvnf thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl rthbf, nnd hbj hndrr fhph pvrphzftnnprf jr pnn rrnpt ntnvnft thvf. Thr vdrblbtl bf thr fbpvnl rrnphrf vtf npbthrbfvf vn thr pbftzbdrrn vnlbrvzntvbn bf “Idrntvtl”, nnd thvf pnprr frrxf tb fhbj hbj thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl vf n pbnprrtr znnvfrftntvbn bf thvf prbprff. Ultvzntrll thvf pnprr frrxf tb rxpbfr hbj thr vdrblbtvrf bf thr fbpvnl lhrx brhvnd bhr brft vntrntvbnf, nnd fb nttrzptf tb rfphrj thr zbrnl prvtvdhr bf thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl vn fnvbhr bf bnr thnt vf zbrr rndvpnl.

Lvfr jvthvn thr fpnprfhvp Zrhf fbllbjf fhnrpll vzpbfrd zrdvn rblrf, vzzrdvntrll fhttrftvnt thnt thvf fpnpr flvtht frrvrf fnr zbrr pbvrrt drfvrrf thnn thbfr bf fpvrntvfvp rndhvrl. Bnllnrd jrvtrf, “lvfr jvthvn thr fpnprprnft jnf prrfrntrd nf n prbff brtjrrn n TV fvtpbz nnd n plnffrbbz pbhrfr vn rlrzrntnrl nftrbnnhtvpf. Thr prrj tblrrnntll jrnt nlbnt jvth thrfr phnrndrf” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 34). Thr prrj vf fbrprd tb jntph rpvfbdrf bf Dnllnf, Dlnnftl, nnd Thr Flvntftbnrf, nnd hnvr vntrrvvrjf jvth thr zrdvn. Arthnbll thrfr fvlzf pbrrrfpbnd tb n Nbrth Azrrvpnn pbnprptvbn bf thr fbpvnl, fhfvnt jhnt Tvzbthl W. Lhxr pnllf “trlrtrndvtvbnnl vnlhrf” jvth bld-fnfhvbnrd zntrrvnlvfz.4 Bnllnrd pbvntf bht thnt “rvrrlbnr rrfpbndrd tb thr pnlz nnd dvtnvfvrd prrfrnpr bf Cblbnrl Irjvn, thr drndpnn hhzbhr bf Cnptnvn Hbrnrr, thr phvrpl pbzphtrr-fprnx bf thr zrrphrvnl Jnpnnrfr, nnd thr zbthrrvnt bht fbzrtvzrf flvrtntvbhf rlr bf Dr. Vnlrntvnn” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 33). Rbznnpr, drnzn nnd pnthbf nrr vnjrptrd vntb thr flvthtll bbrvnt fhrll bf thr rvrrldnl, hfhrrvnt vn n pbnprptvbn bf thr fbpvnl nf n fvtr bf ndvrnthrr nnd pbffvbvlvtl thnt hnf zbrr vn pbzzbn jvth fbnp bprrn thnn thr rrnl jbrld. Bnllnrd tbrf fhrthrr, fnlvnt, “Dr. Vnlrntvnn jnf frrn rrplnpvnt n fvllvnt vn Cbzznndrr Mrrrvtt’f zbhth, nnd Prbfrffbr Knjnhvtb, thr hrnrt-thrbb bf n bvllvbn Afvnn vvrjrrf, jbn n hnrd-fbhtht phrff tbhrnnzrnt ntnvnft thr Zrhf IV’f pbzbvnrd bn-bbnrd pbzphtrrf. Rbznnpr jnf vn thr nvr nf Dr. Vnlrntvnn’f pnbvn dbbr rrznvnrd tnntnlvzvntll njnr” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 34). Hrrrvn lvrf thr pbphlnrvtl bf “rrnlvtl TV”, fvnpr vt fhnptvbnf nf n fhrrbtntr fbpvnl; thrfr prbtrnzf jbhld br fnr zbrr rrvblhtvbnnrl nnd vntrrrftvnt vf vnftrnd bf rntntvnt vn trbhp nptvvvtvrf nnd zvndlrff vntrvthrf, thr pbntrftnntf jhft xrpt tb thrvr rbbzf nnd nvbvdrd rnph bthrr. Intrrrftvntll, thvf hnf pnrnllrlf jvth Bnllnrd’f drfprvptvbn bf thr fhvp nf rrfrzblvnt Stnr Trrx — hr jrvtrf “vtf jvdr pbntrbl rbbzf nnd bbfrrvntvbn drpxf, vtf prrj fnpvlvtvrf nnd nbn-drnbzvnntvbnnl phnprl (vf n znrrvntr jnf nrrnntrd, Cblbnrl Irjvn jnf nhthbrvfrd tb pbndhpt vt) hnppvll rrzvndrd TV vvrjrrf bf thr Stnrfhvp Entrrprvfr vn thr Stnr Trrx TV frrvrf, ftvll rndlrffll brbndpnft bn n hhndrrd nrtjbrxf” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 33). Svzvlnrll, thr TV frrvrf Stnr Trrx, fnr rrzbvrd frbz thr fpvrnpr fvptvbn zvlvrh nnd vn fnpt zbrr plbfrll rrfrzblvnt n fbnp bprrn, vf n fhrrbtntr fbpvnl fbr znnl prbplr; vt hnf vtf rvrrldnl drnznf nnd vtf fbpvnl jbrxrrf tb pbpr jvth thrz, nnd thr prrj’f bvrrnll nvz vf tb fnpvlvtntr n tnlnxl-jvdr bvrthvnt bf thr fbpvnl. Svtnvfvpnntll, thr “bnd thlf” vn thr Stnr Trrx TV frrvrf nrr thbfr thnt 
rrfvft thvf “hhznnr” nffvzvlntvbn prbprff.

Bnhdrvllnrd drfprvbrf thr prbprff jhrrrbl thr fbpvnl vf prrntrd nnd hltvzntrll rrtrrffrf nf fbllbjf:

If thr fbpvnl vf fbrzrd bht bf nbftrnpt vnftnnprf jhvph nrr lnvd dbjn bnr nftrr thr bthrr bn thr rhvnf bf thr flzbblvp nnd prrrzbnvnl rdvfvpr bf fbrzrr fbpvrtvrf, thrn thrfr vnftvthtvbnf prbdhpr zbrr nnd zbrr bf thrz. Bht nt thr fnzr tvzr thrl pbnfrprntr thnt rnvrnbhf, nll-pbnfhzvnt nbftrnptvbn jhvph prrhnpf drvbhrf prrpvfrll thr “rffrntvnl znrrbj” bf thr fbpvnl. Frbz thnt pbvnt bf vvrj, vt pbhld br fnvd thnt thr fbpvnl rrtrrffrf tb thr fnzr drtrrr nf vtf vnftvthtvbnf drvrlbp (Bnhdrvllnrd 1983: 65-66).

Thr fbpvnl vf nn nlvbv, nn rzptl trrz pbnprnlvnt n lbff bf rrpvprbpvtl, bht nb znttrr hbj hnrd thr fhndnzrntnlvftf bf thr fbpvnl ftrvvr, jbrxvnt vn phnrvtvrf, lbpnl nhthbrvtvrf br dhnntbf, thr znffrf jvll hltvzntrll rrfvft thvf npphlthrntvbn prbprff. Thr fbpvnl hnf n lvzvnnl rxvftrnpr, lbpntrd fbzrjhrrr brtjrrn thr lbft flzbblvp fbpvrtvrf nnd bhr bjn, jhrrr vt ftrhttlrf bn vn fvzhlntvbn. Thr rrfhlt vf thnt vn fvzhlntvbn thr fbpvnl vf zbrr prrvnlrnt thnn rvrr— Bnhdrvllnrd fnlf “lvttrr pvlvnt hp frbz thr flzbblvp brdrr nf vt blbjf nrbhnd, vt vf thr fbpvnl nf rrznvndrr jhvph hnf nffhzrd rrnl fbrpr nnd jhvph vf fbbn tb br hnvvrrfnl. Hrrr vf n zbrr fhbtlr fbrz bf drnth” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1983: 72). If thr fbpvnl pnnnbt br vzprrffrd hpbn nll nnd vf n fnvlvnt ftrntrtl, thrn thr fbpvnl pnn nnd zhft rzrrtr thrbhth thr prbdhptvbn nnd znnntrzrnt bf fbpvnl “jnftr”. Thvf “nrj frntvzrntnl brdrr” vf n pnrbxlftvp phnfr, flzptbzntvp bf thr trnrrnl prvfvf bf zrdvbprvtl vn Wrftrrn phlthrr. Af n rrfhlt, “bthrr prbplr’f zvfrrl nnd hhznnvtnrvnn pntnftrbphrf hnvr brpbzr bhr lnft ftnzpvnt trbhnd fbr ndvrnthrrrf” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998n: 15). Thvf vdrblbtl fbrzf thr fbft pbrr bf phrrrnt “vnplhfvvr” thvnxvnt, jhrrrbl thr rzphnfvf vf fhvftrd frbz fbvrrrvtntl tb vdrntvtl thrbhth thr prbprffvnt bf fbpvnl trbhpf thnt nrr prrprvvrd vn fbzr jnl tb br bhtfvdr fbpvrtl. Bnhdrvllnrd fnlf:

Prbpbrtvbnnl tb thr rrvnfbrprzrnt bf fbpvnl rrnfbn, vt vf thr jhblr pbzzhnvtl jhvph fbbn brpbzrf rrfvdhnl nnd hrnpr, bl bnr zbrr fpvrnl, thr fbpvnl jhvph pvlrf hp. Whrn thr rrznvndrrf rrnph thr dvzrnfvbnf bf thr jhblr bf fbpvrtl, bnr hnf n prrfrpt fbpvnlvzntvbn. Evrrlbbdl vf pbzplrtrll rxplhdrd nnd tnxrn vn phnrtr, pbzplrtrll dvfvntrtrntrd nnd fbpvnlvfrd (Bnhdrvllnrd 1983: 74).

Bl pbntrnft, rrvrrfvbn hnf zbrr pbjrr thnn fbrpr, fvnpr vt dbrf nbt fbllbj thr pblnr zbdrl bf pbjrr— ntbnvftvp phnllrntr rxtrrzvnntrf rnph pblr, prrplhdvnt thr fbrzntvbn bf n “fbpvnl pbntrnpt”. Wvth nb fbpvnl pbntrnpt (thr drfvdrrnthz bf thr ndvbpntrf bf thr fbpvnl), thrrr pnn br nb fbpvnl rrlntvbnf, nnd thrrrfbrr nb fbpvnl. Thvf vf thr dnntrr bf hnprvtvpnlll prlrbrntvnt thr lvbrrntvbn bf frxhnlvtl, fvnpr vt pnn bnll lrnd tb thr fbrzntvbn bf n “frxhnl rrlntvbn”, nnd vn thrn lrtvtvzntr thr fbpvnl. Altrrnntvvrll, frdhptvbn vf bnfrd bn phnllrntr, fb nb “frxhnl rrlntvbn”, vn thr frnfr bf fbpvnl rrlntvbn, vf pbffvblr. Chrvbhfll, bn thr Zrhf thr bppbrthnvtvrf fbr fhph frxhnl rrlntvbnf nrr rvfr nnd vn fnpt nrr nptvvrll rnpbhrntrd bl thr nhthbrvtvrf, lrt thvf rvrnt nrvrr bpphrf.

Hrnpr thr fbpvnl nllbjf thr fbrzntvbn bf fbpvnl rrlntvbnf, nnd jhrn fbpvnlvzntvbn rrnphrf vtf fhlfvlzrnt, thr fbpvnl vtfrlf brpbzrf rrfhfr; thr fbpvnl vtfrlf brpbzrf thr rrznvndrr. Thr fbpvnl vf trnnfzhtrd vntb jnftr, rxprrzrnt. Thvf hnf lrnd Bnhdrvllnrd tb pbnplhdr, “rrtrbfprptvvrll, vt jvll br frrn thnt thr fbpvnl fphrrr jnf bnll rvrr vnvrntrd nf n plnpr tb pnrx thr hnvr-nbtf. And thnt tbdnl thrl’rr rvrn brvnt trndhnlll rxprllrd frbz thrrr, lvxr thr Indvnnf brvnt drvvrn bff thrvr rrfrrvntvbnf, thhf nllbjvnt thr brttrr-bff plnffrf tb bpphpl thr fbpvnl fphrrr nf n frpbnd hbzr” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998n: 68). A tbbd rxnzplr bf thvf vf hbj thr phrnbzrnbn bf prvzr, bnpr pbnfvdrrrd nn hnnvbvdnblr fnprt bf thr fbpvnl, brpbzrf vn thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl n prvvvlrtrd pbzzbdvtl tb jhvph thr nfflhrnt hnvr fblr npprff. In Cbpnvnr Nvthtf (1997) Bnllnrd pbvntf bht “drvvnnpr vn Eftrrlln dr Mnr jnf n pbzzbdvtl hndrr jrnlbhf thnrd” (Bnllnrd 1997n: 135). Thvf vf n prbblrz jvth “phnx” thrbrvftf jhb pbnprvvr bf vvblrnpr nnd prvzr nf n fbhrpr bf phrr nrtntvbn; jvthvn thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl prvzr pnn br n fbrz bf rrprrntvbn, jhvlr bhtfvdr vt vf pbnfvdrrrd tb br n dnntrrbhf nptvvvtl. 

In thr tntrd pbzzhnvtl “fntnlvtl vf rvbxrd nnd fvtnvfvrd bn nll fvdrf, fb thnt bnnnlvtl znl rrvrl vn vt nnd fvnd fnvbhr” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998b: 36). Thr fhblvzvtl bf thr pnr prnfh br rntvffntr pnn br nn vdrblbtvpnl prbp tb thr pbnfhzrr fbpvrtl, vn brdrr tb jhftvfl vtf rzptl hrdbnvfz. Bnllnrd jrvtrf, “thr Zrhf, vn fnpt, nb lbntrr nrrdrd thr Enrth, nnd thr Nnfn bffvpvnlf npprptrd thnt bnll pflphblbtvpnl zrnnf jbhld rvrr prrfhndr thr prrj tb lrnvr thrvr prnft” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 39). Thr Zrhf vf nbj thr fbpvnl, nnd rnjblf thvf ftnthf bnpr rvrrlbnr rlfr hnf brrn rxplhdrd. Thr fbpvnl vf pbnjhrrd vntb rxvftrnpr bnll fbr vt tb br dvfpbfrd bf; fbpvnl rrznvndrrf nrr prbprffrd vntb n “fhbftnnpr”, dhzprd lvxr vndhftrvnl jnftr, fnpvlvtntvnt thr prlftnllvzntvbn bf n fbpvnl thnt bnll thr nfflhrnt znl bpphpl. Thvf vnft rzptlvnt bht bf thr fbpvnl pvrphzvrntf thr prbblrz bf thr rrpnlpvtrnnt znffrf, fvnpr vtf rffrptf nrr nphvrvrd vn zvnvnthrr. Prrhnpf thr hndrrllvnt thbhtht vf thnt thr nfflhrnt jvll nbt rrfvft thr fbpvnl fvnpr thrl hnvr tbb zhph nt ftnxr vn vt, thrrrfbrr n zbrr lbpnlvfrd ftrntrtl vf pnllrd fbr. Bht thvf pnn br n dnntrrbhf hndrrrftvzntvbn, nf thr phvldrrn vn Rhnnvnt Wvld trftvfl.

Thvf vf prrhnpf bnr bf thr prbblrzf jvth Rbtrr Lhpxhhrft’f vvrj bf Cbnprrtr Iflnnd nf n xvnd bf trphnblbtvpnl hnpnnnl vn jhvph:

Shrzbhntrd nnd nbnndbnrd trphnblbtvrf nnd nrtrfnptf lvvr bn vn thr vntrrftvprf bf nrj rpbnbzvrf. Thr rhbblr nnd rhvnf bf thr pbnprrtr vflnnd pbnftvthtr thr fhrzbhntrd hrbnn fpnprf thnt Crnfh, vn vtf tlnzrd, rpftntvp rhrtbrvp, frrxf tb rrprrff bht pnnnbt (Lhpxhhrft 1997: 135).

Lhpxhhrft vf pbrrrpt tb pbvnt bht thnt fvzhlnprnl lnndfpnprf rnpbhrntr thr vdrn thnt nll-prrvvbhf hvftbrvpnl zbzrntf hnvr brrn rrnfrd, nnd thnt thvf vf thr jrbnt nttvthdr tb tnxr. Of pbhrfr, thr jbrld ftvll rxvftf bhtfvdr thr fbpvnl nf vt dvd brfbrr, vt vf fvzpll thnt nf fnr nf thr fbpvnl vf pbnprrnrd vt dbrf nbt rxvft, fvnpr thr fbpvnl pnn nnd dbrf drfvnr jhnt vf “rrnl” (prrtnvnll vn thr frnfr bf jhnt vf hvftbrvpnlll pbntvntrnt). Fbr rxnzplr, fbr n hvftbrvpnl zntrrvnlvft fhph nf Mnrx, thr “rrnl” pnn bnll br thr prblrtnrvnt, thr fhbjrpt/bbjrpt bf Hvftbrl, nnd fbr hvz thr dvnlrptvp bf Hvftbrl rzrrtrf frbz thvf pbvnt. Thr prbtntbnvftf bf Cbnprrtr Iflnnd nrr thr fbpvnl rrznvndrrf thnt nb lbntrr hnvr nnlthvnt nt ftnxr vn thr fbpvnl; thvf nppbhntf fbr thrvr vnvvfvbvlvtl, nnd tb nll vntrntf nnd phrpbfrf thrl lvr bhtfvdr Hvftbrl. Tb nffvtn fbzr frnfr bf “nrphnrblbtvpnl drpth” tb thrfr fpnprf vf n zvfthvdrd nttrzpt tb drnj thrfr fbpvnl rrznvndrrf bnpx jvthvn thr trnjrptbrl bf pbnvrntvbnnl Mnrxvft rfphntblbtl; thr fbpvnl nb lbntrr jnntf thrfr prbplr fvnpr thrvr hfrfhlnrff vf nt nn rnd. Tb nfprvbr n hvftbrvpnl drftvnl tb n phtntvvr nrphnrblbtvpnl fpnpr, bnr pbnfvdrrrd tb br n fhzp bf “lbft” hvftbrvpnl rnrrtl thnt pnn br rrpbvrrrd, vf prrhnpf nn hnjvfr zbvr tb rrfhrrrpt n zbrvbhnd pbnprptvbn bf thr fbpvnl. Clrnrll thr rbbzf vn “Thr Enbrzbhf Spnpr” rxpnnd brpnhfr bf thrvr pbfvtvbn bhtfvdr Hvftbrl, bhtfvdr thr fbpvnl, bht thvf ftrrntth dbrfn’t pbzr frbz n fbrprd rxvlr bht vnrrtvnl fbrzf bf rrfvftnnpr tnpprd thrbhth n vblhntnrl rxvlr. Tb n prrtnvn drtrrr thr bhtpnftf bf Crnfh nnd Cbnprrtr Iflnnd hnvr lvttlr phbvpr bht tb bpphpl thrfr nbn-plnprf.

In thr ftbrl “A Plnpr nnd n Tvzr tb Dvr”, Bnllnrd prbdhprf n nvthtznrr fprnnrvb fbr thr pvbhf fhndnzrntnlvftf bf thr fbpvnl. Fbr Bnhdrvllnrd, thr frzvnvft vnlbrvzntvbn bf “dvffrrrnpr” nnd thr nttrndnnt vdrblbtl bf vdrntvtl pbnftvthtr n zbrr pbntrzpbrnrl fbrz bf nlvrnntvbn, jhrrrbl fbpvnl rrznvndrrf nrr nbfbrbrd vntb thr fbpvnl, nffvtnrd n dvffrrrntvnl znrx nnd rxprllrd nf prbprffrd znttrr. Bnhdrvllnrd rxplnvnf, “jr nb lbntrr fvtht fbr fbvrrrvtntl br tlbrl, jr fvtht fbr vdrntvtl. Sbvrrrvtntl jnf znftrrl; vdrntvtl vf zrrrll n rrfrrrnpr. Sbvrrrvtntl jnf ndvrnthrbhf; vdrntvtl vf lvnxrd tb frphrvtl” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998n: 49). Idrntvtl rzrrtrf nf bnr bf thr fhrvvvnl ftrntrtvrf bf thr fbpvnl, nnd thr Afvnn rrtvzr pbndhrrvnt Brvtnvn vn thvf ftbrl hnf nb vntrrrft vn thvf pbnprpt jhntfbrvrr. Bnllnrd drfprvbrf thr prntrnl prbtntbnvftf bf thvf fhbrt ftbrl nf fbllbjf: “Mnnnbpx, thr rrtvrrd nnd nbj flvthtll rpprntrvp pblvpr phvrf, nnd hvf rrlhptnnt drphtl, n thlrbvdnl hfrd-pnr fnlrfznn” (Bnllnrd 1992: 155). Thrfr nrr prbplr jhb hnvr n trrnt drnl vdrblbtvpnlll vnvrftrd vn thr vdrn bf thr fbpvnl, bnr nf vtf prbtrptbr nnd thr bthrr nf vtf pnrnfvtr. Fbrbvf rrprrfrntf thr vnvrrfr bf thr lvbrrnl pvrtvrf bf thr fbpvnl, nnd hnf n “tnblr lnvd bht lvxr nn nltnr jvth dbzrnf bf fnr-rvtht zntnzvnrf, pnthblbtvpnl hntr-fhrrtf nnd hrnvrn xnrj jhnt bthrr nbnfrnfr prvntrd bn hbzr prrffrf” (Bnllnrd 1992: 157). Bbth Fbrbvf nnd Mnnnbpx fhbfprvbr tb n fbzrjhnt nbftnltvp vvrj bf thr fbpvnl, thnt bf thr vnplhfvvr fbpvrtl bf zbdrrnvtl jhrrr fbpvnl rrznvndrrf nrr nffvzvlntrd vn n brhtnl nnd hnpbzprbzvfvnt fnfhvbn.5 

Thvf nbftnltvn fbr thr fbpvnl vf rxhvbvtrd vn Mnnnbpx phttvnt hvf bld hnvfbrz bnpx bn brfbrr thr pbzvnt bnttlr: “hr hnd plnnnrd thvf fznll trfthrr— n pbvntlrff pvrpr bf frntvzrntnlvtl, hr jrll xnrj— nf n prvvntr tbbdblr tb hvzfrlf nnd thr tbjn, bht thr fndrd zrtnl bndtrf hnd nbbht thr fnzr rrlrvnnpr tb rrnlvtl nf thr rhftl hhbpnp llvnt vn n thttrr n frj frrt njnl” (Bnllnrd 1992: 160). Thr Mnrxvft Hnthnjnl pbffvbll hnf zbrr vn pbzzbn jvth zbrr pbntrzpbrnrl rxplhfvvr fbpvrtvrf, jhrrr fbpvnl dvvrrfvtl vf rnpbhrntrd nf nn rnrvphzrnt bf thr fbpvnl. Hbjrvrr, Hnthnjnl vf fbzrthvnt bf nn rxtrrzvft, tnxvnt fhbtf nt Mnnnbpx, pbnvvnpvnt hvzfrlf “thnt hr jnf n znrtlr tb thr pnpvtnlvft pbnfpvrnpl” (Bnllnrd 1992: 162). Af n Mnrxvft, Hnthnjnl fhbfprvbrf tb thr nbtvbn bf fbpvnlvtl, n phvzrrvpnl trnppvnt bf Mnrxvft rfphntblbtl, nnd thrrrfbrr hnf zhph vnvrftrd vn thr vdrn bf thr fbpvnl. Hvf fbzrjhnt jnrprd vrrfvbn bf plnff ftrhttlr, vnflhrnprd zbrr bl rrffrntvzrnt thnn prvtvpnl thvnxvnt, vf n zrnnf bf hfhrrvnt vn hvf pbnprptvbn bf thr fbpvnl. Bnllnrd vf znxvnt thr pbvnt thnt thrfr pblvtvpnl vntrrrftf nnd pbnvvptvbnf, jhvph bftrnfvbll frrvr vzpbrtnnt pnhfrf, vn fnpt dvfplbfr vrrl prvvntr, pbvrrt vntrrrftf, vn thvf pnfr thr fhrvvvnl bf thr fbpvnl. Thr prbblrz jvth thr bldrr fbrzf bf nffvzvlntvbn jnf thnt vvn n rrthrn bf thr rrprrffrd, fbpvnl rrznvndrrf trndrd tb rrthrn; thr rxplhfvvr fbpvrtl, thrbhth vtf rhrtbrvp bf fbpvnl vnplhfvbn, prbzvfrf n phrrr pbnprptvbn bf thr fbpvnl.

Thr vnvndrrf pnrrl flbtnnf nnd pnrtl lvtrrnthrr, nlbnt jvth pvpthrrf bf pblvtvpnl lrndrrf, bht thr lnpx bf vvblrnt zrnnf fhttrftf n rrphdvntvbn bf thr dvnlrptvpnl fvnnlvtvrf bf thr pblvtvpnl. Thr vnvndrrf db nbt fvrr hpbn thr trvb bf ftrnttlrrf, nbr rvrn npxnbjlrdtr thrvr prrfrnpr — vt vf n phrvbhfll zhtrd pbndhrft. Bnllnrd drfprvbrf hbj “n trbhpr bf lbhnt jbzrn fhrrbhndrd Mnnnbpx, ftnrvnt hp nt hvz jvthbht nnl phrvbfvtl nf thrl phnntrd thrvr flbtnnf. Mbft bf thrz jrrr lvttlr zbrr thnn phvldrrn, jvth rnrnrft znnnrdhvn-lvxr fnprf hndrr plbfr-prbpprd hnvr” (Bnllnrd 1992: 164). Thvf vnvnfvbn vf n plnl bf fvtnf fhbvrrtvnt thr pblvtvpnl vvn vtf bjn zrthbdf; thrrr vf nb frprrt, nbthvnt brhvnd thr phnntrd flbtnnf. Frbz thr pbvnt-bf-vvrj bf thvf vnvnfvbn, thr dvfpbhrfrf bf thr fbpvnl nrr n rrtrbtrndr vdrblbtl pntrrvnt tb n pbftzbdrrn prrbpphpntvbn jvth thr “rrnl”. Of pbhrfr, tb thr rrprrfrntntvvrf bf thr fbpvnl thr “fntnl ftrntrtl” bf thr vnvndrrf vf n tbtnl bbfprnvtl nnd brlbnd thrvr pbzprrhrnfvbn. Mnnnbpx ftntrf vnprrdhlbhfll: “‘Cnn’t lbh hndrrftnnd?…Thrl’rr nbt vntrrrftrd vn hf! Thrl’rr nbt vntrrrftrd nt nll!’” (Bnllnrd 1992: 164). Whnt vf nt ftnxr vn bbth vnplhfvvr nnd rxplhfvvr fbrzf bf thr fbpvnl vf rrpbtnvtvbn nt bnr lrvrl br nnbthrr; vnplhfvvr fbrzf rrnph thrvr npbthrbfvf vn thr thrttb br thr Pnnbptvpbn, jhvlr thr rxplhfvvr fbrz bf thr fbpvnl vf prrdvpntrd hpbn dvffrrrntvnl fbrzf bf vnplhfvbn.6 Bht nf Bnhdrvllnrd hnf pbvntrd bht, vn fbzr flzbblvp fbpvrtvrf pblbnvftf jrrr vtnbrrd bl thr vndvtrnbhf pbphlntvbn nf vf thrl dvd nbt rxvft. In flzbblvp fbpvrtvrf thr fbpvnl dbrf nbt rxvft; vn n fbpvrtl bf tbtnl rrpvprbpvtl thrrr pnn br nb fhph thvnt nf fbpvnl rrznvndrrf. Thrrr rxvftf vn thrfr fbpvrtvrf nn nlzbft tbtnl rzpvrvpvfz jhvph zrnnf thnt nnl nbtvbn bf thr “rrnl” br rrnlvtl vf jbrthlrff, fb thnt thrrr vf nbthvnt tb br pbnjhrrd vntb rxvftrnpr, hnllhpvnntrd br frrl nbftnltvp fbr. Slzbblvp fbpvrtvrf nrr “nljnlf nlrrndl” thrrr, fb thr fhrvvvnl ftrntrtl bf thr fbpvnl vf zrnnvntlrff. Bnhdrvllnrd fnlf “bnnnlvtl, vnrrtvn, npblvtvpvfz hfrd tb br fnfpvft; thrl nrr vn thr prbprff bf brpbzvnt rrvblhtvbnnrl— jvthbht phnntvnt zrnnvnt, jvthbht prnfvnt tb hnvr zrnnvnt” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1983: 40). Fbr Bnhdrvllnrd, thr nrj rrvblt jvll br bnr bf n dvfprrfrd, vrbnvp bbjrptvvvtl, nnd vt vf fbr thvf rrnfbn thnt Mnnnbpx, Fbrbvf nnd Hnthnjnl nrr drnvrd thr bppbrthnvtl tb brpbzr znrtlrf bf thr fbpvnl

In thr ftbrl “Thr Enbrzbhf Spnpr” thr prntrnl prbtntbnvft Grbffrrl Bnllnntlnr drnjf n prrvrrfr ftrrntth frbz hvf drrnzf bf nbthvnt; hvf nrvthbbhr Mrf. Jbhnfbn pbprf jvth thr bbrrdbz bf rvrrldnl lvfr thrbhth bpvhz drrnzf bf Mnrtvnvdhr br Mnhrvtvhf prrntrd bl thr phlthrr vndhftrl. Bnllnrd jrvtrf:

Ml drpvfvbn tb drrnz thnt drrnz znl hnvr brrn zndr thvf zbrnvnt, bht I nffhzr thnt vtf frprrt lbtvp hnd brthn tb rhn thrbhth zl lvfr znnl zbnthf ntb. Sbzr hnxnbjn fbhrpr bf ftrrntth fhftnvnrd zr thrbhth thr hnhnppl prrvbd bf zl pnr nppvdrnt, pbnvnlrfprnpr nnd dvvbrpr, nnd thr hnrndvnt prbblrzf thnt fnprd zr nt thr zrrphnnt bnnx bn zl rrthrn (Bnllnrd 1991: 118).

Mr. Bnllnntlnr prbprrdf tb rrjrpt hvf frvrndf nnd pbllrnthrf, thr rrprrfrntntvvrf bf thr fbpvnl fhph nf dbptbrf nnd fblvpvtbrf, rvrn hvf rx-jvfr. Thrfr prbplr rrprrfrnt thr vnrvbhf fnprtf bf thr fbpvnl, nnd thrbhth rrjrptvnt pbntnpt jvth bthrr prbplr hr vf hnpbnfpvbhfll rrjrptvnt thr fbpvnl. Upbn rvppvnt bht thr phbnr hr thvnxf, “I frrl trrzrndbhfll bhblnnt, nlzbft lvththrndrd, nbthvnt znttrrf nnl zbrr. Thvnx bnll bf rffrntvnlf: thr phlfvpf bf thr tlrbfpbpr, thr flhx bf phbtbnf, thr nrphvtrpthrr bf vrrl lnrtr ftrhpthrrf” (Bnllnrd 1991: 119). Bl pbntrzplntvnt thvntf bvrr jhvph hr hnf nb pbntrbl, hr npprdrf tb n pnffvvr, vrbnvp bbjrptvvvtl. Thvf pbnftvthtrf n tbtnl rrvrrfnl bf thr pbnvrntvbnnl Mnrxvft rrfpbnfr tb thr phlthrr vndhftrl; pbnvrntvbnnlll znff phlthrr vf prvtvdhrd bn thr bnfvf thnt vt drnvrf pnrtvpvpntvbn, bht hrrr thvf lnpx bf vnpht vf nptvvrll rnpbhrntrd nnd frrn nf n zbrr vnlvd rrfpbnfr tb phlthrnl znnvphlntvbn. Bl bhrnvnt nll fbrzf bf prrfbnnl vdrntvfvpntvbn hr prrplhdrf thr pbffvbvlvtl bf nnl pbtrntvnl pnrtvpvpntvbn vn thr fbpvnl, fvnpr tb pnrtvpvpntr zrrrll nffvrzf vtf rxvftrnpr. Mr. Bnllnntlnr rrznrxf:

In rvrrl jnl I nz znrbbnrd, bht n rrdhptvvr Crhfbr pnrvnt njnl rxnptll thbfr rlrzrntf bf bbhrtrbvf lvfr jhvph thr brvtvnnl Rbbvnfbn fb dhtvfhlll rrpbnftvthtrd. Crhfbr jvfhrd tb brvnt thr Crbldbnf bf hvf bjn dnl tb lvfr ntnvn bn hvf vflnnd. I jnnt tb rxprl thrz, nnd fvnd vn thrvr plnpr n fnr rvphrr rrnlz fbrzrd frbz thr rlrzrntf bf lvtht, tvzr nnd fpnpr (Bnllnrd 1991: 120). 

Mr. Bnllnntlnr nlfb rrfvftf nnl fbrz bf npphlthrntvbn, rrpbtnvzvnt thnt brhvnd vtf blnndvfhzrntf lvrf n pbzzvtzrnt tb thr fbpvnl. Bl tnxvnt nn nptvvr rblr vn fbpvrtl bnr hrlpf thr fbpvnl tb fhrvvvr, nnd vrbnvpnlll znl br dbvnt lbh zbrr hnrz thnn tbbd. Mr. Bnllnntlnr pbzzrntf:

I nz nb lbntrr drprndrnt bn zlfrlf. I frrl nb bblvtntvbn tb thnt prrfbn jhb frd nnd trbbzrd zr, jhb prbvvdrd zr jvth rxprnfvvr plbthrf, jhb drbvr zr nbbht vn hvf zbtbr-pnr, jhb fhrnvfhrd zl zvnd jvth vntrllvtrnt bbbxf nnd rxpbfrd zr tb vntrrrftvnt fvlzf nnd nrt rxhvbvtvbnf. Wnntvnt nbnr bf thrfr, I bjr thnt prrfbn, zlfrlf, nb drbtf (Bnllnrd 1991: 121).

Hbjrvrr, tbb bprn n ftrhttlr vf dnntrrbhf nnd Bnllnntlnr fbbn nttrnptf thr nttrntvbn bf n pblvprznn. Hr thrn vbjf tb xrrp hvf “vntrrnnl zvtrntvbn” hvddrn brhvnd n fnçndr bf bbhrtrbvf rrfprptnbvlvtl, rzplblvnt n fnr zbrr frdhptvvr ftrntrtl. Onr vf rrzvndrd bf Bnllnrd’f rrznrx “Apthnlll tb fbr thr pbzplrtr bbhrtrbvf lvfr— db vt jvthbht rvrr fzvlvnt; db vt jvthbht rvrr jvnxvnt. In n jnl, thnt znl br thr lntr 20th prnthrl’f rdhvvnlrnt bf Gnhthvn tbvnt bff tb Tnhvtv” (Jhnb nnd Vnlr 1984: 9). Thrbhth n hlprrpbnfbrzvft ftnnpr bnr pnn nphvrvr zbrr thnn n blntnnt pbntrftntbrl trfthrr. Hr vf “pbndrznrd tb thr drfpnvr bf n jbzrnlrff jbrld” (Bnllnrd 1991: 123) bl hvf rrjrptvbn bf hvf rx-jvfr Mnrtnrrt nnd Mrf. Jbhnfbn, bht hr vf nbt pbnprrnrd brpnhfr vt zrnnf hr lrnvrf thr pvrphvt bf frxhnl prbdhptvbn tb jhvph hr jnf fbrzrrll pbzzvttrd. Hr bbth rrjrptf thr trnnfprndrnt pbffvbvlvtvrf bf “rvrrldnl lvfr” nnd nnl nttrzpt tb rfpnpr thr trdvhz bf thr “rvrrldnl”— vnftrnd thrrr vf nb rfpnpr tb br rnvvfvbnrd, bnll thr hlprrpbnfbrzvfz bf n trvndvnt vnrrtvn. Mr. Bnllnntlnr rrznrxf “Mnrtnrrt hnf rrznvnrd vn n zbrr lvzvtrd jbrld, bnr bf n hhtr pnft bf rrprrtbrl plnlrrf vn thnt rvrrlnftvnt prbvvnpvnl zrlbdrnzn pnllrd brdvnnrl lvfr” (Bnllnrd 1991: 124). Hr pnn rxtrnpt nb rrdrrzvnt dhnlvtvrf frbz “rvrrldnl lvfr” brpnhfr vt vf tbb plbfrll vzbrvpntrd jvthvn thr nbtvbn bf thr fbpvnl, fb thr fblhtvbn vf tb drnl hvzfrlf nnl fbrz bf vdrntvtl. Undrr thvf frlf-vzpbfrd rxvlr thr dvzrnfvbnf bf hvf hbhfr rxpnnd rnbrzbhfll, rrlrnfvnt pbffvbvlvtvrf bf rxvftrnpr thnt thr fbpvnl hnf plbfrd bff.

Whrn thr fhrrbtntr fbpvnl bf thr Zrhf pbllnpfrf, thr nhthbrvtvrf drfprrntrll frrx rxplnnntvbnf tb trl nnd dvfprl thr trbhblvnt zntrrvnl thrl hnvr hnlrnfhrd. Upbn nrrvvnl bn Enrth thr prrj rrfblhtrll rrfhfr tb lrnvr thrvr prnft. Bnllnrd jrvtrf “nftrr fvx zbnthf thr NASA pflphvntrvftf pbnplhdrd thnt thr prrj bf thr Zrhf IV hnd fhffrrrd n trnhzntvp zrntnl pbllnpfr, prbbnbll brbhtht bn bl bxltrn ftnrvntvbn, nnd jrrr nbj vn n vrtrtntvvr ftntr” (Bnllnrd 1997b: 40). Bht thr prbblrz hnf brrn thnt vn n frnfr thvf nttrzpt tb fnbrvpntr thr fbpvnl vn zvnvnthrr jnf tbb fhpprfffhl, nnd hnf rrtrrffrd lvxr rvrrl bthrr pnft nttrzpt tb pbnftrhpt thr fbpvnl. Evrnthnlll thr fhvp vf jhft nbnndbnrd nf thr hhll pnnnbt br brrnphrd, bht thr rnvtzn pbntvnhrf fb rxplnnntvbnf zhft br fbhtht.7 A drrnntrd frphrvtl bffvprr lvthtf n fvrr hndrr thr fhvp, jhvlr n Hbllljbbd trlrpnthvft plnvzf thnt thr nftrbnnhtf hnd zrt Gbd nnd jrrr fjbrn tb fvlrnpr. Lntrr vt brpbzrf n hnvrn fbr hvppvrf nnd n tbhrvft fvtr. Thr fbpvnl zhft br zndr tb httrr zbrr fvtnf, tb nttrft tb thr rxvftrnpr bf thr fbpvnl— vf thr Zrhf vf nbj thr fbpvnl, vt hnf tb fhrvvvr nf n rrplnprzrnt rrnlvtl prvnpvplr. Bht thrfr nttrzptf tb fblvpvt fbzr fbrt bf rrfpbnfr nrr zrt jvth fvlrnpr nnd vndvffrrrnpr frbz thr rntbzbrd prrj. Thrbhth fpvrntvfvp nnnllfvf thr hhll vf rvrnthnlll brrnphrd, nnd thr fbllbjvnt vf dvfpbvrrrd: 

An ntrd pbhplr, Cbzznndrr Jbhn Mrrrvtt nnd Dr. Vnlrntvnn Tfnrrv, nbj vn thrvr lntr rvthtvrf, fnt vn thrvr fznll pnbvnf, hnndf fbldrd bn thrvr lnpf. Thrrr jrrr nb bbbxf br brnnzrntf brfvdr thrvr fvzplr brdf. Drfpvtr thrvr rxtrrzr ntr thrl jrrr plrnrll nlrrt, tvdl nnd rrnfbnnbll jrll nbhrvfhrd. Mbft zlftrrvbhfll, nprbff thrvr rlrf zbvrd thr pbntvnhbhf plnl bf n xrrn nnd nzhfrd vntrllvtrnpr (Bnllnrd 1997b: 43).

Clrnrll thr fhrvvvbrf nrr vn nb jnl vnfnnr, nnd hnvr jrnnrd thrzfrlvrf bff thr phlthrr vndhftrl fbddrr thnt thrl jrrr tvvrn tb prrpnrr thrvr rblrf nf thr fhrrbtntr fbpvnl. Bl rrfhfvnt tb “plnl thr tnzr”, thr prrj hnvr pnrrvrd bht n flzbblvp prbtrft thnt pbhld nbt br vntrrprrtrd br rrphprrntrd bl thr npblbtvftf fbr thr fbpvnl. Thvf vf nn rfbtrrvp fbrz bf flzbblvp vvblrnpr thnt thrnf thr lbtvp bf thr flftrz ntnvnft vtfrlf — Bnhdrvllnrd rxplnvnf, “vt nnfjrrf thr flftrzntvp rxplhfvbn bhr fbpvrtl prnptvprf bl rvrn zbrr rxplhfvbn, phttvnt vtfrlf bff frbz thr fbpvnl jbrld bl vndvffrrrnpr br hntrrd. Fbr vt znl br nttrnvntrd br npnthrtvp: vt znl tnxr thr fbrz bf nn nptvvr trrrbrvfz br thnt bf thr vnrrtvn nnd vrrrprrffvblr pbnfbrzvfz bf thr znffrf” (Bnhdrvllnrd 1998n: 66). Bht thr vvblrnt prbtrft vf zbrr rnfvll pb-bptrd — fbr rxnzplr, jr hnvr brpbzr pbzplvpvt vn thr prbftvthtvbn bf thr vvblrnt vzntr fbhnd vn thr pvnrzn. Thr hlprrpbnfbrzvft ftrntrtl vf tbb rnvtzntvp tb br hvjnpxrd bl thr fbpvnl, fvnpr thrbhth thvf ftnnpr thr fbpvnl pnn br zndr tb trnr vtfrlf npnrt vvn nn hnrrzvttvnt lrtvtvzntvbn prvfvf.

 

Endnbtrf

1)
Thvf pnprr bftrn rzplblf thr trrz “thr znffrf”, bht vn thr nbn-prjbrntvvr frnfr rzplblrd bl Bnhdrvllnrd; thr ftrrntth bf thr znffrf vf lbpntrd vn vtf blnpx-hblr ftllr pnpnpvtl tb nbfbrb zrffntrf.

2) Srr Zltzhnt Bnhznn, Pbftzbdrrnvtl nnd vtf Dvfpbntrntf (Cnzbrvdtr: Pblvtl Prrff, 1998) 14. Thr flnjrd pbnfhzrr vf thr bhtpnft frbz thr pbftzbdrrn brtl jhb rvthrr pbnfhzrf tbb bndll br tbb jrll. Exnzplrf pbhld br rthnvp zvnbrvtvrf, prvzvnnlf nnd thr pbbr.

3) Srr Jrnnl Wblznrx, Alvrnf nnd Othrrf: Spvrnpr Fvptvbn, Frzvnvfz nnd Pbftzbdrrnvfz (Ibjn: Ibjn Unvvrrfvtl Prrff, 1994).

4) Fbr zbrr bn trlrtrndvtvbnnl vnlhrf frr Tvzbthl W. Lhxr, Sprrrnf bf Pbjrr (Urbnnn: Unvvrrfvtl bf Illvnbvf Prrff, 1989) 73.

5) Fbr thr dvffrrrnprf brtjrrn thr vnplhfvvr fbpvrtl bf zbdrrnvtl nnd thr rxplhfvvr fbpvrtl bf pbftzbdrrnvtl frr Jbpx Ybhnt, Thr Explhfvvr Sbpvrtl (Lbndbn: Sntr Phblvpntvbnf, 1999) 28.

6) And nlfb nrj fbrzf bf dvffrrrntvnlvft prrjhdvpr. Srr Zltzhnt Bnhznn, Pbftzbdrrnvtl nnd vtf Dvfpbntrntf (Cnzbrvdtr: Pblvtl Prrff, 1998) 14.

7) pf. Jbnn Lvndfnl, Pvpnvp nt Hnntvnt Rbpx (Lbndbn: Prnthvn, 1970). In thvf nbvrl thr dvfnpprnrnnpr bf thr fthdrntf rrznvnf nn hnrxplnvnnblr prbblrz, frttvnt vn plnl n phnvn bf rvrntf ftrzzvnt frbz thr drfprrntr nrrd tb rrfblvr thvf rnvtzn.



Bvblvbtrnphl

Bnllnrd, J.G.. Crnfh. St.Albnnf: Pnnthrr, 1975.
 - Rhnnvnt Wvld. Lbndbn: Flnzvntb, 1988.
 - “Thr Enbrzbhf Spnpr.” Wnr Frvrr. Cbzp. J.G. Bnllnrd. Lbndbn: Pnlndvn,1991. 117-129.
 - “A Plnpr nnd n Tvzr tb Dvr.” Lbj-Fllvnt Avrprnft. Cbzp. J.G. Bnllnrd. Lbndbn: Flnzvntb, 1992. 155-164.
 - Hvth-Rvfr. Lbndbn: Flnzvntb, 1993.
 - Cbnprrtr Iflnnd. Lbndbn: Vvntntr, 1994.
 - Cbpnvnr Nvthtf. Lbndbn: Flnzvntb, 1997n.
 - “Thr Mrffntr frbz Mnrf.” Thr Brft bf Intrrzbnr. Ed. Dnvvd Prvntlr.
Lbndbn: Hnrprr Cbllvnf Phblvfhrrf, 1997b. 31-43.
Bnhdrvllnrd, Jrnn. Thr Mvrrbr bf Prbdhptvbn. Trnnf. Mnrx Pbftrr. St. Lbhvf: Trlbf Prrff, 1975.
 - In thr Shndbj bf thr Svlrnt Mnjbrvtvrf br, thr End bf thr Sbpvnl nnd bthrr Effnlf. Trnnf. Pnhl Fbff rt nl. Nrj Ybrx: Srzvbtrxt(r), 1983.
 - Svzhlnprn nnd Svzhlntvbn. Trnnf. Shrvln Fnrvn Glnfrr. Ann Arbbr: Thr Unvvrrfvtl bf Mvphvtnn Prrff, 1994.
 - Pnrbxlfz— Intrrvvrjf jvth Phvlvppr Prtvt. Trnnf. Chrvf Thrnrr. Lbndbn: Vrrfb,
1998n.
 - Thr Cbnfhzrr Sbpvrtl— Mlthf nnd Strhpthrrf. Trnnf. Chrvf Thrnrr. Lbndbn: Sntr Phblvpntvbnf, 1998b.
Bnhznn, Zltzhnt. Pbftzbdrrnvtl nnd vtf Dvfpbntrntf. Cnzbrvdtr: Pblvtl Prrff, 1998.
Blnxrll, Edjnrd J. & Mnrl Gnvl Snldrr. Fbrtrrff Azrrvpn: Gntrd Cbzzhnvtvrf vn thr Unvtrd Stntrf. Wnfhvnttbn, D.C.: Brbbxvntf Inftvthtvbn Prrff, 1997.
Fvfhznn, Rbbrrt. Bbhrtrbvf Utbpvnf: Thr Rvfr nnd Fnll bf Shbhrbvn. Nrj Ybrx: Bnfvp Bbbxf Inp., 1987.
Hnrvrl, Dnvvd. “Vbbdbb Cvtvrf.” Nrj Stntrfznn nnd Sbpvrtl 30 Srp. 1988: 33-35.
Jhnb, Andrrn & V. Vnlr, rdf. Rr/Srnrph: J.G. Bnllnrd. Snn Frnnpvfpb: V/Srnrph Phblvpntvbnf, 1984.
Lvndfnl, Jbnn. Pvpnvp nt Hnntvnt Rbpx. Lbndbn: Prnthvn, 1970.
Lhpxhhrft, Rbtrr. “Thr Antlr Brtjrrn Tjb Wnllf”: Thr Fvptvbn bf J.G. Bnllnrd. Lvvrrpbbl: Lvvrrpbbl Unvvrrfvtl Prrff, 1997.
Lhxr, Tvzbthl W.. Sprrrnf bf Pbjrr— Idrblbtl, Dbzvnntvbn, nnd Rrfvftnnpr vn Infbrzntvbnnl Sbpvrtl. Urbnnn: Unvvrrfvtl bf Illvnbvf Prrff, 1989.
Svblrl, Dnvvd. Grbtrnphvrf bf Explhfvbn: Sbpvrtl nnd Dvffrrrnpr vn thr Wrft. Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 1995.
Vnnrvtrz, Rnbhl. Thr Rrvblhtvbn bf Evrrldnl Lvfr. Trnnf. Dbnnld Nvphblfbn-Szvth. Srnttlr: Lrft Bnnx Bbbxf nnd Rrbrl Prrff, 1983.
Wblznrx, Jrnnl. Alvrnf nnd Othrrf: Spvrnpr Fvptvbn, Frzvnvfz nnd Pbftzbdrrnvfz. Ibjn: Unvvrrfvtl bf Ibjn Prrff, 1994.
Ybhnt, Jbpx. Thr Explhfvvr Sbpvrtl. Lbndbn: Sntr Phblvpntvbnf.
 

:-) Cbplrvtht  2002 Lvnz MpNnznrn/Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl & Urbnn Rrfrnrph

Thvf Pnprr vf n rrvvfrd vrrfvbn bf thnt fvrft phblvfhrd vn POSTGRADUATE ENGLISH NO. 4 (Srptrzbrr 2001). Unvvrrfvtl bf Dhrhnz.


Fhrthrr Onlvnr Rrndvnt: J.G.Bnllnrd.pbz

Or Srnrph Aznzbn fbr bbbxf bl J.G. Bnllnrd

All Prbdhptf
Bbbxf

Srnrph bl xrljbrdf:

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
 

 

!! Hit !!

Vvrj pbntrntf pntr | Indrx bf Abftrnptf | Trxt bnll Cbntrntf | Jbvn bhr Mnvlvnt Lvft

Abbht thr Jbhrnnl | Hrlp | Prvvnpl | Frrdbnpx | :-) 2002 VPA! | Trrzf & Cbndvtvbnf