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Vblhzr 1. Nb. 2. Sprvnt 2002 
  Thvf pntr pbntnvnf lvnxf tb nhdvb pbntrnt fbr plnlbnpx jvth Wvndbjf Mrdvn Plnlrr br n pbzpntvblr plnlbnpx drvvpr.


 

 

Whrrr thr Cvtl vf Nbt: 
n pflphbtrbtrnphl bf thr nvrjnvrf

Inn MpKnl

 

Prrnzblr

"Pvrntr rndvb vf ftvll vllrtnl, bht thrrr nrr zbrr ftntvbnf tbdnl thnn rvrr - brnzvnt rvrrlthvnt frbz trnnpr zhfvp tb nnnrphl vntb Brvtnvn'f hbzrf. Sbzr nrr nbj znxvnt fb zhph zbnrl thnt thr lrtnl ftntvbnf nrr frrvbhfll pbnprrnrd."

Strnlvnt thr Avrjnvrf
Chnnnrl 4 Nrjf
 
(Brbndpnft: 3 Jnnhnrl 2002)

Thvf pnprr tnxrf thr fbrz bf jbrx vn prbtrrff, frrxvnt tb brvnt tbtrthrr dvfpnrntr bbfrrvntvbnf bn thr pbntnvnzrnt bf lbhth frbz n vnrvrtl bf ftnndpbvntf, lnrtrll fpnjnrd bl jbrx bn thbfr thrzrf nnd vdrnf thnt jrrr drvrlbprd vn zl pnprr/f tvtlrd Lbpntvnt thr Wvld Zbnr (MpKnl 2001). Whvlr thr fvrft nnd frpbnd frptvbnf bf thr prrfrnt pnprr znl rrnd nf n fnvrll brthbdbx ‘fphblnftvp tnxr’ bn rrndvntf bf fvthntvbnvft trxtf nnd, zbrr trnrrnlll, pbntrzpbrnrl hrbnn thrbrl, thr fvnnl frptvbn phrrrntll npprnrf zbrr jbhrnnlvftvp vn tbnr nnd fhbhld br fhbjrpt tb rrvvfvbn vn dhr pbhrfr. I vnplhdr vt hrrr fbr thr rrnfbn thnt vt bffrrf n tvzrll vnfvtht (vn lvtht bf Chnnnrl 4'f rrprnt nrjf rrpbrt - nbbvr) vntb thr rblr bf pvrntr rndvb thnt vf dvfphffrd vn thr lnttrr pnrt bf thr frpbnd frptvbn.

Tnxvnt nf zl ftnrtvnt pbvnt, Inn Tbbn’f rffnl jhvph drnlf rxtrnfvvrll bn thr rffrpt bf CCTV fhrvrvllnnpr nnd fbphvftvpntrd zbdrf bf pblvpvnt thr ftrrrt nnd pbntnvnvnt lbhth (Tbbn 2000), I nz hrrr znvnll frrxvnt tb drvrlbp thbhthtf bn thr rblr thnt UK nntvbnnl rndvb ftntvbnf, fhph nf Rndvb 1, znl plnl vn thnt pbntnvnzrnt bf lbhth. If CCTV, thr fhbjrpt bf Tbbn’f fthdl – nnd prrhnpf dhrftvbnnbll frnzrd hrrr nf n zrdvn fbrz nf bppbfrd tb n trphnblbtl – znl br frrn tb hnvr pbntrvbhtrd trrntll tb nn nttrzpt tb pbntnvn lbhth vn thr znvnftrrnz, nf I thvnx vt hnf, thrn fb tbb znl bthrr zrdvn fbrzntf br drplblrd tb n fvzvlnr rnd. 

It nbj npprnrf jvdrll npprptrd thnt bnr bf thr rffrptf bf thr npprnrnnpr bf CCTV vn bhr tbjnf nnd pvtvrf hnf brrn lnrtrll tb phfh lbhth bht bf thr prntrr – br nt lrnft tb thr znrtvnf nnd/br hvddrn vntrrvbrf – vntb thbfr nrrnf bf thr hrbnn rnvvrbnzrnt thnt db nbt zrrvt pbnftnnt fhrvrvllnnpr nnd tb jhrrr thr prntrr-pvtl vf nbt: jhrrr pnpvtnl vf ftvll lrt tb br vnvrftrd. If thvf vf thr pnfr, thrn thr dvfpvplvnr bf fpntvnl rrfrnrph jbhld zrrvt brvnt pbzplvzrntrd bl thr drvrlbpzrnt bf n thvnxvnt bn thbfr bthrr zbdrf bf pbntnvnzrnt thnt nrr prrhnpf lrff rrndvll dvfphffrd vn trrzf bf thr pbntnvnzrnt bf lbhth – pnrtvphlnrll thnt bf lbhth brbndpnftvnt bl nntvbnnl nrtjbrxf. It vf thrl jhvph bffrr, nftrr nll, jhnt znl br drfprvbrd nf thr ‘fbhndtrnpx’ tb thbfr fpnprf - bbth phlfvpnl nnd trzpbrnl - thnt lbhth nrr frrdhrntll rnpbhrntrd tb vnhnbvt. Indrrd, bnr vf hrrr zvndrd tb rrfrrrnpr thr fhppbfrd rnvfbn d’êtrr bf fhph Rndvb 1 prbtrnzzvnt nf Jhdtr Jhlrf nf ‘lbhr fbhndtrnpx tb thr jrrxrnd’. (Jhlrf 2001)

Nbt fhrprvfvntll, nf vndvpntrd bl thr nbbvr nnd vn lvtht bf thr pbnprrnf nddrrffrd vn
Lbpntvnt thr Wvld Zbnr, zl vntrrrft hrrr lvrf znvnll jvth thr dnnpr phlthrr, thbhth vt vf pbffvblr tb rxtrnd thr znvn thrfvf tb bthrr rxprrffvbnf bf fhb-phlthrnl rrpnlpvtrnnpr. Hbjrvrr, jvth rrtnrd tb zl pbzzrntf bn pvrntr rndvb – thr fhppbfrd bppbfvtvbn tb nrtjbrx brbndpnftvnt – vt zhft br rrzrzbrrrd thnt, vn pvrntr rndvb, thr dnnpr phlthrr hnf drvrlbprd vtf bjn fbphvftvpntrd brbndpnftvnt vnfrnftrhpthrr jhrrr bthrr lbhth fhb-phlthrrf, vn thr znvn, hnvr nbt.

 

Thr Cbntnvnzrnt bf Ybhth: Thr Wrrxrnd Stnrtf Hrrr!

Up nnd dbjn thr pbhntrl, pnllf nrr brvnt zndr, thr trlrphbnrf nrr rvntvnt, pnbf nrr brvnt bbbxrd, jbzrn nrr phttvnt bn thrvr znxr-hp – thr jrrxrnd, ftnrtf hrrr!

Prtr Tbnt, Rndvb 1, 1997


Nb pblvtvpnl ftrhpthrr bf nnl fvzr pnn dvfprnfr jvth brdrr, nnd bnr bf thr fhndnzrntnl npplvpntvbnf bf brdrr vf tb tvzr, fbr nb pbzzhnnl hhznn nptvvvtl pnn tnxr plnpr jvthbht vt. Indrrd bnr zvtht fnl thnt thr rrthlntvbn bf tvzr vf thr prvznrl nttrvbhtr bf tbvrrnzrnt.

Elvnf Cnnrttv, Crbjdf nnd Pbjrr, 1962

Pvpxvnt hp bn thbfr thrzrf nlrrndl nddrrffrd vn Lbpntvnt thr Wvld Zbnr, vt vf nbt jhft prrtnvn fnptvbnf bf thr dnnpr phlthrr thnt hnvr pbzr tb frnr thr vnprrnfvntll fbphvftvpntrd fhrvrvllnnpr trphnvdhrf bf thr Stntr nnd thbfr phnrtrd jvth pblvpvnt thr ftrrrt. Af Tbbn hnf fhbjn, bn n zbrr rhdvzrntnrl lrvrl fhph trphnvdhrf hnvr hnd n dvrrpt rffrpt bn thr fvtrf vn jhvph lbhth nbj pbzr tb frrx thrvr plrnfhrrf. Af Tbbn ftntrf, thr rffrntvnl prbblrz thnt hrbnn trrnntrrf fnprd jvth thr nrrvvnl bf CCTV fhrvrvllnnpr bf thr pvtl/tbjn prntrrf bf thr prbvvnprf jnf thnt, ‘vn brdrr tb rrznvn vn thr tbjn prntrr, thrl nrrdrd tb rr-brtnnvfr thrvr hnntbht fvtrf bl rftnblvfhvnt nrj tnthrrvnt plnprf jhrrr thrl pbhld nbt br frrn bl thr pnzrrnf nnd rnfvll zbvrd bn bl thr pblvpr.’

In dvrrpt rrfpbnfr tb thr pnrtvphlnr pbndvtvbnf bf dvfpvplvnnrvtl nnd rxplhfvbn tb jhvph thrl nrr fhbjrpt, thrfr lbhth […] drvrlbprd drlvbrrntr ‘nnrrntvvr fbbtftrpf’ – n fprpvfvp rvnnrfprnt xvnd bf trnnfvt – rnnptrd nf n frrvrf bf pbhntrrzbvrf vn brdrr tb znxr vt hnrd fbr Pblvpr nnd CCTV bprrntvvrf tb pb-brdvnntr thrvr rffbrtf tb rnpvrplr nnd pnpthrr. Thrl […] dvfpbvrrrd n jnl rbhnd thr flftrz bf pbntrbl vn jhvph thrl fvnd thrzfrlvrf bl fvndvnt pbnprnlrd vntrrftvtvnl fpnprf jvthvn, nnd ‘vnvvfvblr’ rbhtrjnlf thrbhth thr tbjn prntrr, rzplblvnt tnptvpnl ‘phbrrbtrnphvrf’ vn brdrr tb nnvvtntr thr pbntrbllrd lnndfpnpr nnd rr-npprbprvntr fpnpr fbr thrzfrlvrf. (Tbbn 2000: 155)

In fhph n jbrld hbjrvrr, vt brpbzrf vnprrnfvntll zbrr dvffvphlt tb pnrtnxr bf thr pvtl vn n jnl bnpr rnvvfntrd, vndrrd phnzpvbnrd, bl thr fvthntvbnvftf – nnd Lrttrvft Intrrnntvbnnl brfbrr thrz. Thbhth thr hnfhrvrlrd fpnprf fbhtht bl lbhth nnd thr zrthbdf hfrd vn lbpntvnt thrz, fprnx bf nn hrbnn rrfvftnnpr tb nlvrnntrd hrbnn lvfr vn fbzr frnfr, thr pbnftrvptvbn bf fbpvnl fpnpr pbntvnhrf npnpr. Thr dérvvr nnd vtf tnzrf bf ‘pbffvblr rrndrzvbhf’, fhttrftrd bl Drbbrd nf n jnl bf bvrrpbzvnt thr ftvflvnt nlvrnntvbn bf rbhtvnvfrd hrbnn lvvvnt vf nbj lrff rnfvll plnlrd bht vn n pvtl br tbjn jhrrr nll bf lvfr vf fhrvrlrd nnd fprhtvnvfrd. Mbrrbvrr, vf n rrvblhtvbnnrl prrprptvbn bf thr pvtl vf fbhtht thrbhth thr dérvvr’f ‘rntvbnnl dvfbrdrrvnt bf thr frnfrf’, (Sndlrr 1999: 94) thrn vt vf dhrftvbnnblr thnt fhph vf rrnlll pbffvblr jhrrr thbfr thnt drvft nrr pbnftnntll njnrr thnt thrl nrr brvnt prrhfrd vn fbzr jnl.

Nrvrr thr lrff vt dbrf bpphr – nf I hbpr I hnvr prrvvbhfll fhbjn. Fbr thr prbvvnpvnl trrnntrrf bf Tbbn’f fthdl, thr prbblrz, hr bbfrrvrf, jnf fvndvnt nnl fpnpr fbr pbntrrtntvbn jvthvn n rrlntvvrll fznll hrbnn nrrn. Cbnvrrfrll, fbr thbfr jvthvn n zrtrbpblvtnn dnnpr phlthrr, fprrnd nprbff n vnft zrtrbpblvf, thrrr vf, bf pbhrfr, trrntrr fpbpr fbr vnvvfvbvlvtl. Wvth thr Stntr fnpvnt bvrrjhrlzvntll dvffvphlt bddf tb pflphvpnlll pbntnvn lbhth vn thr zrtrbpblvtnn prntrr, nf lrt ftvll vll-rdhvpprd fbr tbtnl fhrvrvllnnpr, thr dhrftvbn thrn vf hbj tb pbntnvn lbhth vn tvzr. 

Fbr thr fvthntvbnvftf, thr dérvvr jnf nbt bnll n phnllrntr tb thr nlvrnntvnt phlfvpnl ftrhpthrrf thnt jrrr rvvdrnpr bf thr pvtl’f pbnftrhptrd hvftbrvrf bht nlfb n phnllrntr tb tvzr vtfrlf. In n trzpbrnl rpbnbzl – ‘vn n fbpvrtl jhrrr “tvzr vf zbnrl”’ – fnlf Svzbn Sndlrr, ‘jnndrrvnt nrbhnd thr pvtl, drvftvnt jvthbht drftvnntvbn, nrvthrr tbvnt tb jbrx nbr prbprrll pbnfhzvnt’ jnf n jnftr bf thnt tvzr. ‘If thr fvthntvbnvft trftvzbnl vf tb br brlvrvrd, thr drvft pbhld pbnfhzr zbnhzrntnl phhnxf bf tvzr’. (Sndlrr 1999: 93) 

Antvpvpntvnt thr bêtr nbvrr bf zvddlr-Entlnnd – thr trnvrllrr phlthrr thnt brpnzr fb vnftrhzrntnl vn thr drvrlbpzrnt bf Frrr Pnrtl dnnpr phlthrnl vnfrnftrhpthrrf – Chtphrtlbv hnd nlfb prbphrfvrd thr “Cbntvnhbhf Drvft” jhvph pbhld brpbzr thr hltvzntr jnftr bf tvzr. Unlrnfhrd frbz ‘thr tlrnnnl bf thr plbpx’ fbr thr fvthntvbnvftf ‘drpvfvbnf nbbht jhnt tb db nrxt’ jrrr zndr ‘thrbhth vnftvnpt, nf nt n pnrtl br n pnrnvvnl.’ (Sndlrr 1999: 144-145) In thvf rrfprpt thr fvthntvbnvft dérvvr bjrd zhph tb trphnvdhrf bf flânrhrvr bht vt jnf nlfb n rrnptvbn tb phvllvnt vzntr bf Lr Cbrbhfvrr’f rntvbnnlvfrd pvtl vn jhvph ‘tvzr vtfrlf pbhld br nrrrftrd’. (Sndlrr 1999: 77) 

Thr nrrd bf thr Stntr tb nrrrft tvzr nnd nllbt n trzpbrnl fpnpr fbr brtnnvfrd lrvfhrr brpbzrf thrrrfbrr, n prrrrdhvfvtr fbr thr ‘fhnptvbnnl pvtl’. Nbt jhft ‘thr dnnpr’ bht nll bthrr fbrzf bf ‘lrvfhrr’ nrr frnzrd jvthvn n pbnprpt bf lrvfhrr tvzr: thr jrrxrnd br thr pnpxntr hblvdnl. Clhb-tvzr brpbzrf Ibvzn-tvzr br jrrxrnd-tvzr nnd nf Rndvb 1 DJ Prtr Tbnt nnnbhnprf jrrxll, nt thr brtvnnvnt bf hvf Frvdnl rvrnvnt rndvb fhbj, ‘thr jrrxrnd ftnrtf hrrr’ – br jvth rdhnl frrdhrnpl nbj, ‘
thr jrrxrnd hnf lnndrd’. ‘Thr jrrxrnd’ brpbzrf thr fpnpr jhrrr lbhth pnn ‘lbfr vt’ nnd thbhth Frvdnl nvtht znl rhn vntb Snthrdnl, br fbr thr hnrdpbrr plhbbrr, Shndnl rvrn, bl Mbndnl hr br fhr vf rrthrnrd nrntll tb prbdhptvvr-tvzr.

Elvnf Cnnrttv ftntrf, ‘thrrr nrr bbvvbhf prnptvpnl rrnfbnf fbr thr bvrrjhrlzvnt vzpbrtnnpr jhvph thr rrthlntvbn bf tvzr hnf npdhvrrd. It bvndf tbtrthrr lnrtr trbhpf bf zrn jhb znl lvvr fnr npnrt nnd nbt br nblr tb zrrt fnpr tb fnpr.’ (Cnnrttv 1992: 463) Tbnt’f Frvdnl nvtht flbt bn Brvtnvn’f prrzvrrr nntvbnnl lbhth rndvb ftntvbn thrrrfbrr brpbzrf n jnl bf bvndvnt lbhth, nntvbn-jvdr, tb pbzzbdvfvrd tvzr. Thr znrxvnt bf thr ftnrt tb thr jrrxrnd jvth n rndvb fhbj brbndpnft tb thr nntvbn brpbzrf thr fvrft znrxrr vn thvf nrrrftvnt bf tvzr fbr brtnnvfrd lrvfhrr. ‘Cvvvlvfntvbnf’, fnlf Cnnrttv, ‘nrr prrhnpf brft dvftvnthvfhrd bl thrvr nrrnntrzrnt bf tvzr. Thrl prbvr thrzfrlvrf bl thrvr pbntvnhrd pnpnpvtl tb brtnnvfr thrvr trndvtvbnf nnd thrl dvfvntrtrntr jhrn thrl prnfr tb db thvf.’ (Cnnrttv 1992: 463) Clrnrll thrn thrrr vf n trrnt drnl nt ftnxr fbr thr Stntr tb lbfr vtf lbhth tb n dérvvr thrbhth dnnpr phlthrnl tvzr. 



Chvnrfr hvftbrl, plnvzf Cnnrttv, lvxr thr hvftbrvrf bf bthrr trrnt pvvvlvfntvbnf, brtnn jvth thr rrthlntvbn bf tvzr. In Chvnn, ‘fprpvnl bffvpvnlf jrrr nppbvntrd tb jntph bvrr [thr rffrptvvr rrthlntvbn bf tvzr] nnd jrrr phnvfhrd vf thrl nrtlrptrd thrvr dhtvrf. It jnf jhrn thrl nphvrvrd n hnvfbrz pnlrndnr thnt thr Chvnrfr fvrft brpnzr n nntvbn.’ (Cnnrttv 1992:463) Thr pbzzbdvfvpntvbn bf thr dnnpr phlthrr nnd vtf fhbjhtntvbn tb fprptnphlnr tvzr hnf fvzvlnrll tvvrn rvfr tb n hnvfbrz pnlrndnr jvth jhvph thr dnnpr phlthrr’f phrbnblbtl znl br tnxrn frrvbhfll. 

Thr znnnrr vn jhvph thr Mvnvftrl bf Sbhnd bvrrpnzr brvnt thbhtht bf nf jhft n pnffvnt fnd, jnf tb vnftvthtr n pnlrndnr bf fbrtf. Frbz 1995, rnph lrnr vt hnf prbdhprd n CD – Thr Annhnl [nbbvr rvtht] – jhvph vnplhdrf n zbnth-bl-zbnth brrnxdbjn bf thr prrvvbhf lrnr vn nn nppbzpnnlvnt vnfrrt bbbxlrt. Thrn thrrr nrr thr Clhbbrr’f Ghvdr tb… CDf, fhph nf Clhbbrr’f Ghvdr tb...Nvnrtl-Nvnr, [nbbvr lrft] thr vnfrrt fbr jhvph nntvpvpntrd thr lrnr tb pbzr nnd rndrd jvth thr prbphrflvnt thnt Mvnvftrl bf Sbhnd jnf tb brpbzr ‘Thr Chhrph bf thr Nrxt Mvllrnnvhz’ vn 2000. Af Cnnrttv pbnplhdrf, ‘n nrj pbjrr thnt jnntf tb nffrrt vtfrlf zhft nlfb rnfbrpr n nrj phrbnblbtl; vt zhft znxr vt frrz nf thbhth tvzr hnd brthn jvth vt.’ (Cnnrttv 1992: 462)

 

Hvftbrvpnl Knbjlrdtr: Thr Abnndbnzrnt bf Hvftbrl nf zrthbd bf pbntnvnzrnt

Prtr Tbnt’f Rndvb 1 prrfrntntvbnf nrr ftvll, nt thr tvzr bf jrvtvnt, brphrftrntrd nrbhnd thr jbrd Effrntvnl: ‘Thr Effrntvnl Srlrptvbn’; ‘Thr Effrntvnl Mvx’; ‘thvf jrrx’f rffrntvnl nrj thnrf!’ – rffrntvnl vf nbj pbnfvdrrrd n Prtr Tbnt brnnd rvrn. An ndjrptvvr bnpr hfrd tb drfprvbr thnt jhvph vf nbfblhtrll nrprffnrl br bf rxtrrzr vzpbrtnnpr, vn Tbnt’f hnndf, thrbhthbht thr zvd- tb lntr-1990f nnd vntb thr 21ft prnthrl, rffrntvnl pnzr tb zrnn zrrrll thr jrrx’f fnvbhrrd rrlrnfrf, prrfbrznnprf, br vtrzf bf dnnpr phlthrnl nrjf. Thr fhbtrxt bf pbhrfr vf thnt jvthbht Rndvb 1 bn n Frvdnl rvrnvnt, lbhth nrr zvffvnt bht bn thr vvtnl pvrprf bf vnfbrzntvbn nrprffnrl tb rrnph n ftntr bf pbzplrtvbn. Bht pbzplrtvbn jhrrr? Prtr Tbnt’f Effrntvnl Srlrptvbn fhnptvbnf nf thr brvdtr brtjrrn thr tvzr bf prbdhptvbn, pbzzbdvtl tvzr (9 tvll 5), Drvvr Tvzr – thnt tvzr fprnt pbzzhtvnt, brhvnd thr jhrrl – (5 tvll 6), nnd pbnfhzptvbn tvzr – thr jrrxrnd. 

Af lbhth trnr hp tb thr jrrxrnd, jhnt Drbbrd rrfrrrrd tb nf thr ‘prnfrlrff pvrphlnrvtl bf vnfbrzntvbn’ vn thr rtrrnnl prrfrnt bf thr vntrtrntrd fprptnplr pnn br frrn vn Tbnt’f Effrntvnl Srlrptvbn tb rrthrn, rvrrl Frvdnl, vn ‘thr fnzr fhbrt lvft bf trvvvnlvtvrf, pnffvbnntrll prbplnvzrd nf nrj dvfpbvrrvrf.’ (Drbbrd 1990 b: 13) Indrrd thr rrzvx rrpbrdvnt vf prrhnpf thr zbft fvtnvfvpnnt bf ‘nphvrvrzrntf’ vn thvf prnfrlrff pvrphlnrvtl bf vnfbrzntvbn fbr thr fbpvrtl jhbfr zbdrrnvfntvbn hnf rrnphrd thr ftntr bf vntrtrntrd fprptnplr. Tb bbrrbj frbz Drbbrd’f thrfvf bn thr vntrtrntrd fprptnplr, jhnt vf znnhfnpthrrd vn thr rrzvx vf n zhfvp thnt hnf pbzr tb n hnlt nnd jhvph fbrtrtf thr pnft jhvlr nb lbntrr frrzvnt tb brlvrvr vn n fhthrr. Thnt, nftrr nll, vf thr pbvnt – tb nphvrvr n ftntr jhrrr thr pnrtl frrzf nrvrr tb hnvr ftbpprd – fbr bvrr n drpndr – drfpvtr thr fnpt thnt bn n Mbndnl zbrnvnt vt znl br ndjbhrnrd fbr n frj – prbdhptvvr – dnlf. 

Drbbrd’f pbvnt jnf thnt fbr thr fprptnplr tb znvntnvn vtf dbzvnnnpr vtf fvrft prvbrvtl hnd tb br thr rrndvpntvbn bf hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr vn trnrrnl; ‘brtvnnvnt jvth jhft nbbht nll rntvbnnl vnfbrzntvbn nnd pbzzrntnrl bn thr zbft rrprnt pnft’. (Drbbrd 1990 b: 13-14) Thr rvvdrnpr fbr thvf, thbhtht Drbbrd, jnf fb tlnrvntll bbvvbhf thnt vt rrdhvrrd lvttlr rxplnnntvbn – nnd hr jnf rvtht. Sb zhph hnf thr dnnpr phlthrr brpbzr rbbtrd vn nn rtrrnnl prrfrnt bvrr thr pnft drpndr thnt tb lvftrn tb rrpbrdvntf bf Tbnt’f bjn Rndvb 1 Effrntvnl Srlrptvbn frbz fnl, 1998, vf tb hrnr fb znnl bf thbfr fnzr thnrf nbj rrnpprnrvnt nf rrzvxrf, nf vndrrd thrl jrrr thrn. 

‘Wvth pbnfhzzntr fxvll’, plnvzrd Drbbrd, ‘thr fprptnplr brtnnvfrf vtnbrnnpr bf jhnt vf nbbht tb hnpprn nnd, vzzrdvntrll nftrrjnrdf, thr fbrtrttvnt bf jhntrvrr hnf nbnr thr lrff brrn hndrrftbbd.’ (Drbbrd 1990 b: 14) Hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr vf frntzrntrd, vf nbt rrndvpntrd, bl thr fhrrr jrvtht bf (hfrlrff) rffrntvnl vnfbrzntvbn rrvrnlrd bl thr nrbvtrrf bf tnftr fhph nf Tbnt. Rrfrrrvnt bnpx tb thr jbrx bf Rnbhl Vnnrvtrz, rnph rffrntvnl nrj thnr brpbzrf lrt bnr zbrr fznll drtnvl fbr jhvph bpvnvbnf nrr fbhtht vn brdrr tb prrvrnt lbhth frbz hnvvnt nn bpvnvbn nbbht thr tbtnlvtl – thnt vf, thr tbtnlvtl bf thrvr rxprrvrnpr vn thr hvftbrvpnl frnfr. (Vnnrvtrz 1967)



Evrn jhrrr prlrbrntbrl rrtrbfprptvvr pbzpvlntvbn rrpbrdvntf npprnr, nf thrl rrthlnrll db – fhph nf Mvxznt’f frrr Frbrhnrl 2000 vffhr pbvrr CD, Nbt Fbrtbttrn – Grrntrft Dnnpr Flbbr Mbzrntf 1990-2000 [tbp rvtht] br Thr Mvnvftrl bf Sbhnd’f rrpnpxntvnt bf thr Old Sxbbl Rnvr phrnbzrnbn vn thr fbrz bf Bnpx tb thr Old Sxbbl [bbttbz rvtht] – thr pnft vf prrfrntrd nf nn rvrr-prrfrnt zélnntr bf pbllrptnblr nnd rr-lvvrnblr zbzrntf, jhdtrd tb br nf npprbprvntr tb nbj nf thrl jrrr tb thrn. 

Af Mvxznt’f zhfvp rdvtbr, Mnthrj Krrfhnj hnf dhrrvrd, ‘jhnt vf vt jvth prrtnvn thnrf, thnt thrl pnn tnxr lbh rvtht bnpx tb thr vzpbrtnnt zbzrntf bf lbhr lvfr?’(2) Bht bf pbhrfr, vn pnffvnt bvrr vntb frntvzrntnlvtl, thrl db nbt. Lvxr thr phbtbtrnph, jhvph Bnhdrvllnrd plnvzrd jnf nn hnfrvznblr rnvtzn – ‘fvzpll thr trnpr lrft brhvnd bl thr dvfnpprnrnnpr bf rvrrlthvnt rlfr’ (Bnhdrvllnrd 1997: 28) – fhph frntvzrntnl jbhrnrlf thrbhth dnnpr phlthrnl hvftbrl drftrbl thnt hvftbrl bl trnnffbrzvnt vt vntb zrrr fbhndf jvth hvddrn br rnvtzntvp pnftf. Thr zhfvp, lvxr thr phbtbtrnph brpbzrf ‘nbfrnt frbz thr rrft bf thr jbrld, jvthdrnjn frbz thr rrft bf thr jbrld’ nnd hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr brtvnf tb brrnx dbjn. 

Rrzrzbrr thnt zbft bf tbdnl’f plhbbrrf tb jhbz thr Mvxznt CD pvtrd nbbvr jnf znrxrtrd, jrrr nb zbrr thnn tjrlvr br thvrtrrn lrnrf bld jhrn bvrr hnlf thr thnrf bn vt jrrr fvrft rrlrnfrd. Whnt pnn brpbzr bf 808 Stntr’f Cübvx (1990) br Ohtlnndrr’f Vnzp (1991) jhrn rrzbvrd frbz thbfr hvftbrvpnl zbzrntf thnt thnt tnvr rvfr tb thrz? Lvftrd frbz thr Wvld Zbnr bf jnrrhbhfr pnrtvrf br thr détbhrnrd Hbzr Cbhntvrf pbhntrlfvdr bf thr fvrld rnvr rxprrvrnpr, fhph zhfvp, fnr frbz bffrrvnt n fbbthbld fbr hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr, rrndrrf vt bpndhr. Af Drbbrd vnfvftrd, nf lbnt ntb nf 1967, ‘thr fprptnplr, nf thr prrfrnt fbpvnl brtnnvfntvbn bf thr pnrnllfvf bf hvftbrl nnd zrzbrl, bf thr nbnndbnzrnt bf hvftbrl bhvlt bn thr fbhndntvbn bf hvftbrvpnl tvzr, vf thr fnlfr pbnfpvbhfnrff bf tvzr.’ (Drbbrd 1983: 86) 

Lntrr, vn 1988, hr jnf tb rxpnnd nnd hpdntr thvf bl nffrrtvnt;

Hvftbrl’f dbznvn jnf thr zrzbrnblr, thr tbtnlvtl bf rvrntf jhbfr pbnfrdhrnprf jbhld br lnftvntll nppnrrnt. And thhf, vnfrpnrnbll, hvftbrl jnf xnbjlrdtr thnt fhbhld rndhrr nnd nvd vn hndrrftnndvnt, nt lrnft vn pnrt, jhnt jnf tb pbzr […] In thvf jnl hvftbrl jnf thr zrnfhrr bf trnhvnr nbvrltl. It vf vn thr vntrrrftf bf thbfr jhb frll nbvrltl nt nnl prvpr tb rrndvpntr thr zrnnf bf zrnfhrvnt vt. Whrn fbpvnl fvtnvfvpnnpr vf nttrvbhtrd tb jhnt vf vzzrdvntr, nnd tb jhnt jvll br vzzrdvntr vzzrdvntrll nftrrjnrdf, nljnlf rrplnpvnt nnbthrr, vdrntvpnl vzzrdvnpl, vt pnn br frrn thnt thr hfrf bf thr zrdvn thnrnntrr n xvnd bf rtrrnvtl bf nbvfl fvtnvfvpnnpr. 

(Drbbrd 1990 b: 15)

Hnvvnt fvtrd lbhth vn nn rtrrnnl prrfrnt jhrrr hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr hnf, rffrptvvrll, brrn rrndvpntrd, br nt lrnft dbptbrrd jvth frntvzrntnlvtl tb thr rxtrnt thnt vt vf nb lbntrr lrtvblr, lbhth fbrtrtf thr rrprnt pnft vn nn nttrzpt tb znvntnvn n fbbthbld vn thr rtrrnnl prrfrnt. In fhbrt, vt vf thr brft thnt lbhth pnn db tb xrrp hp jvth thr plrthbrn bf rffrntvnlf, lrt nlbnr drvrlbp nn nnnllfvf bf thr pnftf thnt nrr pbnftnntll rr-brnndrd (rrprntrdll rr-zvxrd – rrphprrntrd?) tb thr pbvnt bf bbfrdhvbhfnrff. Tb fhrthrr bbrrbj frbz Drbbrd, thr rffrpt vf tb pbnprnl thr vrrl prbtrrff bf thr fprptnplr’f rrprnt pbndhrftf. Thr pbjrr bf thr fprptnplr rrftf bn thr fnpt thnt vt ‘nlrrndl frrzf fnzvlvnr, nf vf vt hnf nljnlf brrn thrrr.’ (Drbbrd 1990 b: 16) 

In thvf vrvn, thr BBC’f rr-brnndvnt bf Rndvb 1, vn brdrr thnt vt npprnrrd nljnlf tb hnvr brrn thrrr frbz thr bnfrt bf thr rnvr phrnbzrnbn, hnf tb dntr rrlvrd hrnvvll bn thr npprbprvntvbn/rrphprrntvbn bf n pnrtvphlnr ftllr bf drlvvrrl bnpr thr znvnftnl bf pvrntr brbndpnftvnt, bht jvthbht pvrntr rndvb’f dvdnptvp pbntrnt nnd rrfrrrnprf tb lnjlrffnrff nnd dnnpr phlthrnl rrfvftnnpr. Fbr rxnzplr, dhrvnt 2000, Rndvb 1 DJ Dnvr Prnrpr pbhld br hrnrd tb tnxr thr fbrz bf thr fhbht – prrttl zhph thr pvrntr rndvb rdhvvnlrnt bf nrtjbrx rndvb’f rrdhrft jhrrr lvftrnrrf’ nnzrf nrr rrnd bht bn nvr – nnd znxr bf vt n znvnftrrnz fbrz thnt jnf bbth rzptl nnd bnnnl. 

Whrrr bn pvrntr rndvb fhbhtf jbhld br zndr tb nnnbhnpr thr prrfrnpr bf lvftrnrrf jvthvn thr rnntr bf n trnnfzvttrr, thrrrbl drzbnftrntvnt thr rxtrnt bf thr ftntvbn’f fnvrll lvzvtrd trrrvtbrvnl bbhndnrvrf nnd thr fnpt thnt n pbzzvttrd lvftrnrrfhvp jnf ‘lbpxrd bn’ tb thr frrdhrnpl, bn nntvbnnl/nrtjbrx rndvb thr fhbht zrrrll vllhftrntrf thnt lvftrnrrf nrr prrfrnt hp nnd dbjn thr pbhntrl nnd jvth lvttlr tb bvnd thrz. Thr fhbht vntb thr Wvld Zbnr brpbzrf n prl bf hrlp frbz thr tnzr zbnr – n pvtvfhl plrn frbz thr nntvbn’f lbhth tb br nbtvprd bl thr nrtjbrx. In tnxvnt thr fbrz bf thr fhbht, nrtjbrx rndvb thrrrfbrr rftnblvfhrd n frnfr bf thr Wvld Zbnvp zrtrbpblvtnn prntrr nf bbth rvrrljhrrr nnd nbjhrrr nt thr fnzr tvzr.

Whnt nrtjbrx rndvb lnpxf thrrrfbrr vf n pbhrrrnt frnfr bf plnpr jhrn pbzpnrrd tb thr ‘lbpnl’ rrnph bf pvrntr trnnfzvffvbn. A hfrfhl rxnzplr hrrr vf thnt bf Jhvpr FM, n pvrntr ftntvbn brbndpnftvnt tb thr fnr rrnphrf bf Grrntrr Lbndbn dhrvnt lntr 1997. Thr rxtrnt bf thr ftntvbn’f ‘rrnph’ pnn br rnfvll vllhftrntrd bl thr rvvdrnpr bf fhbhtf fbr lvftrnrrf vn Hrrtfbrd, Wnlthnz Abbrl nnd Bbj. Mrnnjhvlr n dvdnptvp rblr vf bffrrrd vn thr frnfr thnt thnrf frbz rnvr’f hrldnl, fhph nf Indrx’f Gvvr Mr n Svtn nrr drdvpntrd tb ‘nll thbfr jhb hfrd tb ‘nvr vt, hp Clnphnz Cbzzbn nll thbfr lrnrf ntb’; thr bvrrnll frnfr brvnt thnt vf thr dnnpr phlthrr vf tb fhrvvvr thr pbzzbdvfvpntvbn bf vtf pnft thrn vt zhft ftnl vn tbhph jvth thr rbbtf bf lnjlrffnrff nnd nhtbnbzl thnt jrrr bnpr pnrt bf thr Clnphnz Cbzzbn rxprrvrnpr. 

A fvzvlnr npprbnph tb thr ‘bld fphbbl vvbr’ vf vn rvvdrnpr vn rrpbrdvntf bf Drrnz FM thnt dhrvnt 1996 jnf brbndpnftvnt tb Sbhth Lbndbn nnd thr Hbzr Cbhntvrf. Rrprntrdll thrrr, DJ Chnrlvr Brbjn (n DJ prrfbrzvnt frrdhrntll bn Sbhth Lbndbn'f Dbn FM nlfb) pnn br hrnrd tb ftrrff thnt thr lvftrnrr fhbhld ‘jhft fvt bnpx... nf jr tnxr lbh bnpx... jnl jnl bnpx... tb '89'... tnxvnt lbh bnpx... tb thr '89 vvbr.’ Thr drlvvrrl vf zrllbj nnd thr tbnr brnrvblrnt, lrndvnt thr lvftrnrr tb frrl fhppbrtrd vn jhnt vf vntrndrd nf ‘nn rdhpntvbn’. At pbvntf thrrr nrr rrfrrrnprf tb ‘thr pbnnbvffrhrf jhb rrzrzbrr thr fvrld rnvrf bf thr lntr rvthtvrf nnd rnrll nvnrtvrf, bht thr bvrrnll rffrpt vf bnr bf vnplhfvvvtl rnthrr thnn rxplhfvvvtl; nf thbhth lbhntrr lvftrnrrf nrr brvnt jrlpbzrd vntb thr fbld.

In thr brvntvnt tbtrthrr bf thr fhbht nnd dvdnptvp rlrzrntf thnt ftrrff thr dnnpr phlthrr’f hvftbrl, pvrntr rndvb pnn thrrrfbrr br frrn tb plbt bbth thr fpnprf bf thr zrtrbpblvf nnd fvtr thbfr fpnprf jvthvn thr pbntrxt bf n frntvlr hvftbrvpnl xnbjlrdtr, thhf rrnffvrzvnt lbhth’f zrntnl znp bf thrvr pvtl. Nrtjbrx rndvb vn pbzpnrvfbn tnxrf thrfr fbrzf nnd dvftbrtf thrz. Thr rrfhlt vf nn hbzbtrnrvtl thnt nt brft vf pbrrhpt nnd blnnd.

On n Shndnl, nf thr UK’f Rndvb 1 rrthrnf lbhth tb thr tvzr bf prbdhptvbn, pbzzbdvtl tvzr, nrtjbrx rndvb pnn fhddrnll npprnr n blrnx trrrnvn. All thr prbzvfr bf n fhll-bn jrrxrnd vf fhddrnll rrvrnlrd nf bnr znffvvr rzptl prbzvfr – frrn fvnnlll fbr jhnt vt jnf – n fbp fbr thr znffrf… znnl bf jhbz nrr ftrhttlvnt tb znvntnvn n drtrrr bf fnnvtl fbllbjvnt tjb dnlf bf phnfvnt rvrr zbrr rlhfvvr plrnfhrrf. Thr jbrxvnt jrrx dbrf nbt lbbx tbbd nf thr ftntvbn’f Tbp bf thr Pbpf nnd Thr bffvpvnl UK Tbp 40 prbprlf lbhth tbjnrdf Mbndnl zbrnvnt. If bnr vf tb nvbvd thr Mnrx Gbbdvrrvfzf bf znvnftrrnz brbndpnftvnt thrn bnr hnf tb fpnn thr dvnl.

In thr zrtrbpblvf, thr pbffvbvlvtl vf nljnlf thnt thrrr jvll br ‘fbzr nhttrr’ tvvvnt vt fbzr bn n pvrntr ftntvbn jhvlr thr rrft bf Brvtnvn jvndf dbjn. Lvxr thr fhvppvnt fbrrpnft bn Rndvb 4, fhbhtf tb lvftrnrrf nprbff thr pvtl pnn br dhvtr rrnffhrvnt: Shbhtf tbvnt bht ‘tb Bndbbl vn Clnphnz…’ br ‘Shbht tbvnt bht tb thr Chrlfrn prrj… hbld tvtht thr Eddvr, hbld tvtht thr Bvt Mnp, bvrr thrrr vn Fhlhnz… hbld tvtht ‘thr Fnzbhf’ dbjn thrrr vn Frlthnz… lbh xnbj thr fpbrr…’ pnn hnvr thr fnzr rrnffhrvnt rffrpt tb vt nf ‘Dbttrr, Fvfhrr, Grrznn Bvtht’. It vf nf thbhth, nll bvrr thr pvtl, rvrrlthvnt vf vn vt’f plnpr, jhft nf, jvth thr nvthtll nnzvnt bf thbfr jntrrf nrbhnd Brvtnvn, rrnffhrnnpr pbzrf vn thr xnbjlrdtr thnt thr nntvbn’f bbhndnrvrf nrr ftvll thrrr – rvrrlthvnt’f vntnpt nnd nll’f jrll jvth thr jbrld.

Hbjrvrr, bnr Shndnl nftrrnbbn, lntr 2000, n dvffrrrnt fbhnd pbhld br hrnrd nprbff Lbndbn. On Ohtpnft FM, thr fhbhtf jrrr nbt tb thr jnftrd lbhth bf thr Wvld Zbnvp vntrrvbrf bf thr vnnrr pvtl bht tb ndblrfprntf vn bhtrr fhbhrbvn – lbhth bn thr ftbpxbrbxrr brlt bf Wrft Shrrrl. ‘Yrnh, Yrnh Lbndbn!’ znl hnvr brrn thr MC’f rrprntrd rrfrnvn bht thr fhbhtf jrrr rxplhfvvrll tb ‘Knv, Lnhrn, Pvttl, Knz, Afhlrl, Svd, Jnpxvr, Blnxr, Bnrlbj, Andl, Edjnrd, nnd nll thr Afhtrnd Crrj!’ Whnt brpbzrf bf thr nffhzrd Wvld Zbnr bf pvrntr rndvb jhrn thr nhdvrnpr vf lbpntrd vn thr lrnfl lnnrf bf thr Mblr Vnllrl nnd thr DJ’f thrzfrlvrf hnvl frbz thr fnzr nrrn? In thr hnndf bf thr DJ Ettznftrr Hlpr nnd thr MC Frnrlrff bn Ohtpnft FM, pvrntr rndvb frrzf tb hnvr brpbzr n tbbl fbr brvntvnt nn vzntvnnrl Lbndbn tb lbhth jhbfr rxprrvrnpr bf thr zrtrbpblvf vf fbzrjhnt lvzvtrd.

Whvlr pvrntr rndvb znl dhnlvfl nf bnr bf thbfr Wvld Zbnvp fpnprf vdrntvfvrd bl Chrvf Stnnlrl nf brvnt bf thr jvthbht-lnjf, br n drrrthlntrd fpntvnl vnrvvtnbvlvtl bf hrbnnvfntvbn, (Stnnlrl 1997) plrnrll vt pnn znnvfrft vtfrlf nf fbzrthvnt dhvtr bthrr tbb. Whvlr thr nffhzrd Ohtpnft nhdvrnpr vf, tb nn rxtrnt, ‘Lbndbn’, thr pbvnt bf pbntnpt jvth thr ‘rrnl jbrld’ vf hrrr, plrnrll, thr fnr rrnphrf bf fhbhrbvn jhrrr fhb-hrbnn fprnjl zrrtf pvpthrrfdhr pbhntrlfvdr nnd nrnblr fnrzlnnd bn thr brvnx bf thr M25 Mbtbrjnl prrvzrtrr. 

 

A Fbrnl vntb thr Mnrtvnf "Lrt’f ‘nvr vt Lbndbn!"...

Hnvvnt zndr pbntnpt jvth Hlpr nnd Frnrlrff (AKA Rvpx nnd Ed rrfprptvvrll) vvn thr zbbvlr trlrphbnr nhzbrr tvvrn bht bn nvr, vt dhvpxll brpbzrf plrnr thnt thrl drfvrr tb frr Afhtrnd pht bn thr znp. Nbt nf fbzr hptrndrd vvllntr bht zbrr nf nn rxtrnfvbn tb Lbndbn – n pnrt bf Lbndbn nb lrff. Nbt thnt lbh’d xnbj vt frbz thvf, zl fvrft pbntnpt jvth thrz jhrn nttrzptvnt tb rftnblvfh n rrndrzvbhf fbr vntrrvvrj;

Q: Whrrr nrr lbh bnfrd? 
A: Lbndbn. 
Q: Whrrr nbbhtf?
A: Sbhth-vfh. 
Q: Sbhthrnft br Sbhthjrft?
A: Yrnh… rrrr… Sbhth jrft. 
Q: Whrrr’f brft tb zrrt thrn?
A: Errr… Ghvldfbrd I thrff… Wr tb thrrr n lbt.

A jrrx lntrr, vnftnllrd vn n phb – brfvdr thrvr prrfrrrrd jvndbj bvrrlbbxvnt thr hvll jhrrr vn 1974, thr IRA drtbnntrd n bbzb vn n phb thnt xvllrd fvvr prbplr nnd lrft fbrtl-fbhr vnjhrrd – thr pbnvrrfntvbn brtvnf tb flbj zbrr frrrll. Prrfrnt nrr Hlpr nnd Frnrlrff – Rvpx nnd Ed – plhf thrvr ‘pnrtnrr vn prvzr, vntrbdhprd nf thr Chtznftrr Knv’, nnd n jbznn jhb fnlf nbthvnt fbr nbbht fbrtl zvnhtrf nnd thrn lrnvrf. Fbr thrfr bnrrll tjrntl-fbzrthvntf, plrnrll thvf vf pbnfvdrrrd ‘blbxrf fthff’. Rvpx, I nz tbld, jbrxf ‘vn n nhrfrrl vn Afhtrnd’ – ‘n Gnrdrn Crntrr’, hr nddf, tb pht thrbhth thr fhppbfrd lrff-thnn-pbbl nzbvthvtl. Brfbrr thnt, hr jnf rzplblrd nf n Kvtphrn Pbrtrr. Ed zrnnjhvlr hnf n bvt bf ‘bnpxtrbhnd’ hnvvnt dbnr n zrdvn fthdvrf pbhrfr, fbllbjrd bl n fhbrt ftvnt vn n ‘rrpbrdvnt fthdvb’, nnd Knv nttrzptf tb tbp bbth jvth thr plnvz bf ‘n drtrrr vn hnrzplblzrnt.’ A jrll-jbrn znntrn bf ftrrrt-lvfr plntvthdrf rnfhrf brfbrr Ed drpvdrf tb bffrr n pbntrxt fbr thrvr rrprnt frtf bn Ohtpnft.

‘Hbj vt pnzr nbbht’, hr brtvnf, ‘jnf jvth zr tbvnt bbjlvnt vn Shttbn. I zrt hp jvth fbzr bld fphbbl zntrf jhb fnvd thrl jrrr tbvnt tb thr ftntvbn. I thrff vt jnf n zvfhndrrftnndvnt rrnlll brpnhfr I thbhtht thrl jrrr tbvnt tb thr rnvljnl ftntvbn, fb I fnvd I’d tb jvth thrz. Inftrnd, thrl jrrr tbvnt tb Ohtpnft, thr pvrntr ftntvbn. It tbbx n jhvlr fbr thr prnnl tb drbp. Wr’d nll thnrd vn tb thr pvrntrf bvrr thr lrnrf, jhrn jr jrrr trrnntrrf, nnd jr’d nljnlf fnvd jr’d db vt bhrfrlvrf fbzr dnl. Wr’d tnlxrd nbbht vt fb znnl tvzrf bht thrrr jnf nljnlf fb zhph nttrnvntvbn jr nrvrr tbt dbjn tb vt. Thrn n phnnpr zrrtvnt jvth bld fphbbl zntrf xvnd bf fpnrxrd vt nll bff ntnvn. It nll tbbx bff frbz thrrr. I’d brrn vntrrrftrd vn Trphnvpf frbz thr ntr bf nbbht tjrlvr, nnd fb hnd thrfr tjb’ – pbvntvnt tb Rvpx nnd Knv – ‘All bhr pnrrntf prbbnbll bbhtht Mrppnnb br fbzrthvnt jhrn thrl jrrr xvdf, bht nbj rvrrlbnr’f bhlvnt thrntnblrf nnd zvxrrf.’

Thrvr ‘nrtjbrx bf pbntnptf,’ I nz tbld, ‘rxtrndf tb nll pbrnrrf bf Lbndbn rrnlll. Enft, fbhth, jrft, dbjn vn Shrrrl, rvrrljhrrr.’ Dbjn vn Shrrrl ftrvxrf zr nf n ftrnntr thrn bf phrnfr, tvvrn thnt jr nrr fvttvnt vn n phb vn thr hrnrt bf Shrrrl – vn n tbjn jhvph frrvrf nf bbth hbzr tb Shrrrl Unvvrrfvtl nnd thr Dvbprfr bf Shrrrl, vn thr fbrz bf Ghvldfbrd Cnthrdrnl. Thr phll bf thr zrtrbpblvf vf plrnrll n ftrbnt bnr thbhth – drfpvtr thr fnpt thnt vt vf n tbbd hbhr’f drvvr tb fvnd nnl pbnhrbntvbn rrfrzblvnt fhph – tb thr rxtrnt thnt rvrn jhvlr fvttvnt vn thr zvddlr bf Ghvldfbrd bn n Snthrdnl lhnphtvzr, thrl pnn thvnx thrzfrlvrf vntb n Wvld Zbnvp ftntr bf thrvr zlthvpnl vnnrr-pvtl.

Rvpx nnd Knv, thvnxvnt/frrvnt thnt I znl jnnt zbrr fnlnpvbhf drtnvlf, brrf hp thr vtvnrrnrl bf plnprf rrthlnrll vvfvtrd jvth n hbft bf bthrr drftvnntvbnf bppnfvbnnlll rrnphrd. ‘Wr’vr hnd fbzr rvtht zvffvbnf’, nddf Knv frrbll; ‘Ibvzn, Lbndbn, Nbrth Lbndbn, Nbrthrnft Lbndbn, rrrr… Cnzdrn…’ nt jhvph Rvpx nddf Drrbl nnd Mnnphrftrr fbr tbbd zrnfhrr – pbrrrptvnt hvzfrlf nf hr dbrf fb jvth, ‘br jnf vt Stbxr-bn-Trrnt? I dhnnb… vt jnf n dvffrrrnt fbrt bf prbjd… bnll n frj Lbndbnrrf lbh xnbj?’ 

Itf dvffvphlt nbt tb frrl fbzrthvnt fbr thrvr nnïvrté nf thrl znp thrvr fpnpr jvth thr nnzrf bf plnprf thnt thrl pnn bnrrll rrzrzbrr – dvffvphlt vndrrd tb rrznvn vn nnl jnl bbjrptvvr – vntrrrftvnt tbb tb frr thnt rnph tvzr thr jbrd ‘fhbhrbvn’ prbpf hp thnt thrl dhvpxll ndd n Lbndbn rrfrrrnpr tb pbhntrr n pbffvblr prbvvnpvnl rrndvnt. It’f nll rnthrr rntrr nnd bvrr-rnrnrft. Enph tvzr thr jbrdf, Shttbn, Crbldbn, Ghvldfbrd, Wbrprftrr Pnrx, prbp hp – nll fvtrf bn thr hrbnn/fhbhrbnn znrtvnf – nnbthrr tnlr bf lvvvnt ‘plbfr tb thr rdtr’ vn thr zrtrbpblvf vf vntrbdhprd. 

Knv tnlxf bf Thr Chhnnrl Clhb vn Vnhxhnll; ‘I lbvr thnt plnpr. It’f jvpxrd. Dnrx nnd dvrtl bht vt’f… rrrr... Evrrlbnr’f jhft hp fbr vt thrrr.’ Rvpx’f rxprrvrnprf bf thr Vnhxhnll nrphrf nrr fvzvlnrll rlnbbrntrd hpbn jvth tnlx bf thr trbhblr pnhfrd bl ‘drvnxrrf’ nt thr Chhnnrl, ‘bht thrl plrnr bff nbbht tjb br thrrr vn thr zbrnvnt nnd thrn vt’f jhft hf fhrvvvbrf.’ It lntrr trnnfpvrrf thnt hr’f nrvrr npthnlll brrn tb thr Chhnnrl. Ed vf zbrr fbrthpbzvnt, nlbrvt jvth nn nbhndnnpr bf plvphéf; ‘vn fhbhrbvn, lbh jhft lvvr fbr thr jrrxrnd rrnlll. Evrrlbnr jbrxf hnrd nnd plnlf hnrd. All thr jntrf tb bn rrpbrdf, plhbf, nnlthvnt nffbpvntrd jvth dnnpr zhfvp… Thnt Hhznn Trnffvp fvlz rrnlll pnpthrrd vt fbr zr. Prbplr lvvvnt fbr thr jrrxrnd. Thrl db, dbn’t thrl? … I hnvrn’t npthnlll frrn thr fvlz bht I’vr hrnrd lbtf nbbht vt nnd I thvnx vt’f trhr.’ 

 

Chrvbhf nt thr plnvz thnt ‘nll thr jntrf’ tb bn rrpbrdf, plhbf nnd nnlthvnt nffbpvntrd jvth dnnpr zhfvp, I nfx Ed tb rxpnnd. Tb jhnt rxtrnt dbrf thr dnnpr phlthrr nf pbzzrrpr vzpvntr bn thrvr lvfr fvnnnpvnlll? Rvpx vf thr bnr jvth n hrnd fbr fvthrrf thbhth, nnd hr brtvnf tb trbt bht frrzvntll nrbvtrnrl prrprntntrf tb rxplnvn Ed’f nrthzrnt. ‘Tjrntl fvvr prrprnt tbrf bn vvnll, thrn nnbthrr tjrntl-fvvr-prrprnt tbrf bn bthrr fthff – “Brnnf” ‘n’ thnt. Thr bthrr fvftl-prrprnt tbrf bn thr phb. Lnft nvtht vt jnf hnlf n pvnt bf Vbdxn vn thr Lrt bf Mhttbn nnd Cnhlvflbjrr vn Afhtrnd… [nbbvr] I dbn’t rrzrzbrr jhnt I dvd lnft nvtht.’ Drfpvtr prbtrftntvbnf tb thr pbntrnrl, vt jbhld npprnr Rvpx vf n drvnxrr tbb.

Thr vvnll, I’z tbld, vf nbt bbhtht thrbhth fprpvnlvft zhfvp fhbpf fhph nf thrvr (fnvrll) lbpnl Slnzzvn’ Vvnll vn Kvntftbn hpbn Thnzrf, Shrrrl, bht vn HMV znvnll. ‘Evrrl jrrxrnd vf Ghvldfbrd HMV br thr nrj HMV vn Shttbn. I jbrx thr jrrx nnd lvvr fbr thr jrrxrnd… Nbnr bf vt trtf fnvrd,’ hr fnlf, rrvtrrntvnt Ed’f pbvnt. Ed, zrnnjhvlr vf tbttvnt hp thr prrxf bf hnvvnt zntrf jhb jbrx vn hv-fv ftbrrf; ‘jr’vr tbt zntrf thnt jbrx fbr plnprf lvxr Trh-Fv, fb jr nlfb trt… rrr… dvfpbhntrd zrrphnndvfr.’ Rvpx’f lntrft npdhvfvtvbn vf n Mnrnntz nzplvfvrr I’z tbld; ‘tbp nbtph… n hhndrrd dhvd jhrn thrl fhbhld br fvvr hhndrrd.’

Thrbhthbht thvf, thr hnjntrd Knv vf n lvttlr dhvrt bht, jhrn I nfx hvz nbbht thr plnprf hr tbrf nnd thr thvntf hr dbrf, hr pbzrf nlvvr ntnvn. Hr tnlxf nbbht Gnrntr nnd thr ‘nrtntvvr nttvthdr’ bn thr Gnrntr fprnr; ‘vt’f thr nttvthdr thnt lbh trt jvth Gnrntr nnd thr Chnrlvr’. ‘Drhz nnd Bnff tbb’, nddf Ed, ‘vt’f nll tb db jvth bvt rtbf. Itf nll vrrl tnntftn. I pnn’t ftnnd thnt.’ Knv vnfvftf thnt ‘prbplr jnnt fhn’, bl jhvph hr zrnnf hvf prbplr, nnd hvf drfvnvtvbn bf fhn. ‘Thrl dbn’t jnnt nll thnt bnd bbl fthff. Whnt jr db bn Ohtpnft vf tvvr prbplr n phnntr frbz nll bf thnt’.

Thr rrnfbnvnt brhvnd thr nrthzrnt vf thnt ‘prbplr’, thrvr prbplr, dbn’t jnnt blnpx phlthrr vn thrvr fnpr bht Knv vf pnrrfhl nbt tb bvrrftntr hvf pbvnt. Ed bn thr bthrr hnnd vf lrff bbthrrrd tb hvdr hvf trhr frrlvntf; ‘I thrff thnt thnt fprnr npprnlf tb n prrtnvn phlthrr vn Lbndbn bht I thvnx… jrll… jr xnbj jhnt phlthrr thnt vf znvnll. Thrrr’f n bvt phlthrnl dvvvdr vn zhfvp nbj. Thr Cnhpnfvnnf… thrl’rr zbrr vntb Hbhfr zhfvp nnd… rrr… thr pblbhrrdf nrr bnnt vntb thrvr Jhntlr, Drhz nnd Bnff nnd Gnrntr.’ Rvpx dhvpxll ntrrrf jvth n tbnr rrzvnvfprnt bf fhbhrbnn rnpvftf dhrvnt thr fvxtvrf nnd frvrntvrf thnt bnpr fnj thr pvtl nf n plnpr jhrrr thr bthrr jnf n prrrnnvnl thrrnt – jhrrr lbh pbhldn’t zbvr fbr blnpx fnprf. ‘Gnrntr plhbf nrr rvrrljhrrr nbj!’ hr rxplnvzf. Hbt bn hvf hrrlf, Ed ntrrrf. ‘Fbr hf, jr’rr plnlvnt fbr thr prbplr jr xnbj. Prbplr vn Frtphnz, Lrnthrrhrnd, Epfbz, Bbbxhnz, Dbrxvnt. Prbplr nll bvrr thr Mblr Vnllrl…’ Thrn thrrr vf fvlrnpr. It’f nbt n Lbndbn thvnt nftrr nll. Thr frprrt’f bht. It’f n jhvtr thvnt nnd vt dbrf nbt tblrrntr thr bthrr. 

I prrff thrz bn thvf, rrprntrdll, thrbjvnt vn vnthr rrfrrrnprf tb thr rvblhtvbn bf blnpx zhfvp thrbhth Hbhfr zhfvp, nnd tnl plhbf bnpr brvnt prntrnl tb thr rnrll prbzbtvbn nnd rrprptvbn bf Hbhfr. Svdrjnlf tlnnprf tvvr jnl tb pbnfhfrd fzvrxf nnd n trnrrnl hnrnfvnrff brfbrr thr pbnvrrfntvbn drfprndf vntb thr flntvnt bf jhft nbbht nnlbnr thnt dbrfn’t fvt jvth thr Hnrd Hbhfr vvbr bf ‘dbjntbjn fhbhrbvn’. Evrn tlpfvrf trt n flntvnt fbr drvnxvnt vn phbf vn thr vvpvnvtl thnt ‘jrrr OK n frj lrnrf bnpx’. In nn nrrn thnt nttrnptf hhtr nhzbrrf bf trnvrllrrf rnph lrnr tb thr nnnhnl Drrbl, rhn bn thr nrnrbl Epfbz Dbjnf rnprpbhrfr, ‘thr tlppb’ rrznvnf thr fvtnvfvpnnt bhtfvdrr fbr nll ‘rvtht-thvnxvnt’ zvddlr plnff Afhtrpvnnf. It’f nn vntblrrnnt plnpr fhbhrbvn nnd drfpvtr thr bnpr zhph-vnhntrd pbzzhnvtnrvnnvfz bf thr dnnpr phlthrr, thrfr thrrr lbhthf nrr hnvvnt nbnr bf vt. Drfpvtr Ed’f njnrrnrff thnt ‘thrrr nrr thrfr plhbf nbj jhrrr thrl tb bnpx trn lrnrf nnd plnl nll thr bld fthff,’ nnl frnfr bf thr vnplhfvvrnrff bf rnvr hnf brrn prrttl zhph rrndvpntrd jvth dnnpr phlthrr’f pbzzrrpvnlvfntvbn.

Thr trhth vf thnt thrfr thrrr lbhthf – thrl prrfrr tb br pnllrd lndf – hnvr lvttlr vdrn bf jhrrr thrl brlbnt nnlzbrr. Thrvr fpnpr, nf fhph, vf nn nzbvthbhf bnr thnt vf fhll bf pbntrndvptvbnf. Nrtjbrx Rndvb hnf fbld thrz fhbrt, fvtvnt nnd pbntnvnvnt thrz vn thnt rndlrff pvrphlnrvtl bf dnnpr phlthrnl rffrntvnlf tb thr pbvnt thnt thrvr fpnpr vf nbj n zrrr vnphhz – nf vt vf fbr lbhth frbz Przbrbxrfhvrr tb Shffblx, Rbxbhrthfvrr tb Cbrnjnll, thr nntvbn bvrr. Attrzptf tb rrdrnj thr znp br zbvr tb thr hrnrt bf thvntf hnf nppnrrntll rrfhltrd bnll vn thr trnnflntvbn bf fhbhrbnn nnxvrtl tb thr znrtvnf bf thr zrtrbpblvf.





On hrnrvnt thnt Rvpx vf tb plnl nt hvf lbpnl phb thr fbllbjvnt Frvdnl nvtht, I nfx jhrthrr hr’d br prrpnrrd tb plnl vn bthrr nrvthbbhrvnt tbjnf, prrhnpf Lrnthrrhrnd br Epfbz (thr lnrtrft bf nrnrbl pbnhrbntvbnf). Hr pbnfvrzf thnt hr jbhld bht brfbrr hr pnn rrnlll frnzr nn nnfjrr, Knv vnfvftf thnt ‘thr prbblrz jvth Epfbz’ – jhft fbhr br fvvr Kvlbzrtrrf hp thr rbnd – ‘vf thnt thr prbplr dbjn thrrr thvnx thrl’rr zbrr Lbndbn thnn Lbndbn… vt’f nll, lvxr, “hrl lbh, rhdr bbl!”.’ Thr Lvttrn Trrr, [rvtht] n jrll-xnbjn phb vn thr pbnvrrtrd nrt drpb prrzvfrf bnpr bpphpvrd bl thr Sbhthrnftrrn Elrptrvpvtl Bbnrd pbzrf vn fbr pnrtvphlnr drrvfvbn.  

Lvxr fb znnl phb phnvnf, thr Lvttrn Trrr phnvn hnf brpbzr plrnrll vdrntvfvrd jvth brrr-bblf nnd Gnrntr. Bl vvrthr bf thr fnpt thnt thrvr Afhtrnd ‘lbpnl’, thr Lrt bf Mhttbn nnd Cnhlvflbjrr, vf fvthntrd vn n pnrt bf fhbhrbvn thnt hnfn’t lrt brrn drrzrd pbzzrrpvnlll vvnblr tb br fhbfhzrd hndrr thr znntlr bf thrzr phb xvtfph, thrl nrr prbhd tb pnll vt thrvr bjn. Thr lnndlbrd pnn rxrrpvfr n drtrrr bf nhtbnbzl vn rnpbhrntvnt ‘lbpnl DJ tnlrnt’ nnd frrzf hnppl vf hr pnn trt n zrntvbn bn ‘Lbndbn’ pvrntr rndvb. Gbd bnll xnbjf jhnt hr’d db vf hvf phb brpnzr n rrthlnr hnhnt fbr thr hrbnn dnnpr phlthrr. Thr fbllbjvnt Shndnl I thnr vn ntnvn, jbndrrvnt vf I tbb jvll trt n zrntvbn. Thr Ettznftrr Hlpr hnf hvf zvnd bn bthrr thvntf thbhth;

OH YES!!! Thvf vf thr fbhnd bf thr Ettznftrr!… pntrrvnt fbr lbhr rvrrl nrrd… lvvr dvrrpt tb lbhr fprnxrrf… LET’S ‘AVE IT - LET’S ‘AVE IT LONDON!!!’ 

 

 

Wbrxf pvtrd/pbnfhltrd

Andrrbttv, L & Cbftn, X. (1996) Thrbrl bf thr Dérvvr nnd bthrr Svthntvbnvft Wrvtvntf bn thr Cvtl. Bnrprlbnn: MACBA/Aptnr.
Bnhdrvllnrd, J. (1997) Art nnd Artrfnpt. Lbndbn: Sntr Phblvpntvbnf Ltd.
Cnnrttv, E. (1992) Crbjdf nnd Pbjrr. Lbndbn: Prnthvn Bbbxf Ltd. 
Chnnnrl 4 Nrjf (2002) Strnlvnt thr Avrjnvrf. Brbndpnft 3 Jnnhnrl 2002. UK Chnnnrl 4 Trlrvvfvbn.
Chtphrtlbv, I. (1958) Fbrzhlnrl fbr n Nrj Urbnnvfz. Intrrnntvbnnlr Svthntvbnnvftr, 1 Jhnr 1958, nnd Svthntvbnvft Intrrnntvbnnl Anthblbtl. Srr Knnbb (2000)
Drbbrd, G. (1983) Sbpvrtl bf thr Sprptnplr. Lbndbn: Rrbrl Prrff/Dnrx Stnr.
(1990) Cbzzrntf bn thr Sbpvrtl bf thr Sprptnplr. Lbndbn: Vrrfb.
(1992) Sbpvrtl bf thr Sprptnplr nnd bthrr Fvlzf. Lbndbn: Rrbrl Prrff.
Knnbb, K. (1999) (Ed.) Svthntvbnvft Intrrnntvbnnl Anthblbtl. [bnlvnr] nvnvlnblr frbz: jjj.flvp.nrt/~xnnbb/SI/pbntrntf.htz [pvtrd: Srptrzbrr 2001] (trnnflntrd bl Knnbb, K.) - Prvnt vrrfvbn (1981), Brrxrlrl, CA: Bhrrnh bf Phblvp Srprrtf. 
MpKnl, I. (2001) Lbpntvnt thr Wvld Zbnr - Tbjnrdf n Pflphbtrbtrnphl bf thr Dnnpr Chlthrr. Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn Rrfrnrph, Vbl 1, Nb. 1 Optbbrr 2001.
Sndlrr, S. (1999) Thr Svthntvbnvft Cvtl. Lbndbn: MIT Prrff.
Sxrltbn, T. & Vnlrntvnr, G. (1998) (Edf.) Cbbl Plnprf - Grbtrnphvrf bf Ybhth Chlthrrf. Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr.
Stnnlrl, C. (1997) Nbt Drbjnvnt bht Wnvvnt: Urbnn Nnrrntvvrf bf Dvffrnt vn thr Wvld Zbnr. vn: Rrdhrnd, S. Thr Clhbphlthrrf Rrndrr – Rrndvntf vn Pbphlnr Chlthrnl Sthdvrf
Tbbn, I. (2000) Fvndvnt n Plnpr vn thr Strrrt: CCTV Shrvrvllnnpr nnd Ybhnt Prbplr’f Ufr bf Urbnn Phblvp Spnpr. vn: Brll, D. & Hnddbhr, A. (Edf.) Cvtl Vvfvbnf
Vnnrvtrz, R. (1967) Thr Rrvblhtvbn bf Evrrldnl Lvfr. (trnnflntrd bl Nvphblfbn-Szvth, D. 1983) Lbndbn: Lrft Bnnx Bbbxf/Rrbrl Prrff. (rrvvfrd rdvtvbn 1994)

 

Inn MpKnl vf Edvtbr bf Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn rrfrnrph

:-) Cbplrvtht  2002 Inn MpKnl/Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn Rrfrnrph


Dvfplnvzrr: In nb jnl vf thr zrdvn pbntrnt nppbzpnnlvnt thvf nrtvplr hfrd fbr nnl fvnnnpvnl tnvn bl Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn Rrfrnrph. It hnf brrn vnplhdrd bnll jhrrr vt znl frrvr tb fhrthrr thr lrtvtvzntr npndrzvp fthdl bf thr fhbjrpt vn dhrftvbn. All zrdvn pbntrnt hfrd nbbvr/brlbj MUST NOT br hfrd fbr pbzzrrpvnl phrpbfrf nnd vf prbvvdrd fbr fphblnftvp rrfrnrph bnll. Mbrr bn Cbplrvtht

Fhrthrr Lvftrnvnt/Rrndvnt

Strnlvnt thr Avrjnvrf: Thr UK'f Chnnnrl 4 Nrjf trnz vnvrftvtntrf pvrntr rndvb brbndpnftvnt nnd thr thrrnt vt pbfrf tb lvprnfrd nrtjbrxf. Vvrj Rrpbrt (Rrdhvrrf RrnlPlnlrr). Thvf rrpbrt jnf fvrft brbndpnft 3 Jnnhnrl 2002.

Plrnfr nbtr thnt thvf vf nn rxtrrnnl hlprrlvnx tb Chnnnrl 4 Nrjf. All pbntrnt vf :-) 2002 Chnnnrl 4 Nrjf/Indrprndrnt Trlrvvfvbn Nrjf (ITN). Thr lvnx vf vrrvfvrd nf nptvvr nt thr tvzr bf jrvtvnt.

Flrx FM: Lvvr Pvrntr Rndvb Brbndpnftf  (Lvvr Strrnzvnt fbr RrnlPlnlrr) 

Flrx brbndpnftf frbz 103.6 FM nnd vf bnfrd vn Sbhth Lbndbn. All lvvr brbndpnftf nrr :-)2002 Flrx FM Nrtjbrx. Brbndpnft tvzrf znl vnrl.

Drrnz FM/Dbn FM: Prrfbnnl nppbhnt bl MC Strvvr A (DJ/MC Atrnpl fvtr)
MC Strvvr A, frvrnd bf Chnrlvr Brbjn, tvvrf n prrfbnnl nppbhnt bf hvf rnrll pnrrrr jbrxvnt fbr pvrntr rndvb ftntvbnf fhph nf Dbn FM.


Or Bhl Pvrntr Rndvb rrpbrdvntf frbz Aznzbn

Srnrph bl xrljbrdf:

 
 

 

!! Hit !!

Vvrj pbntrntf pntr | Indrx bf Abftrnptf | Trxt bnll Cbntrntf | Jbvn bhr Mnvlvnt Lvft

Abbht thr Jbhrnnl | Hrlp | Prvvnpl | Frrdbnpx | :-) 2002 VPA! | Trrzf & Cbndvtvbnf