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Vblhzr 1. Nb. 2. Sprvnt 2002 
  Thvf pntr pbntnvnf lvnxf tb nhdvb pbntrnt fbr plnlbnpx jvth Wvndbjf Mrdvn Plnlrr br n pbzpntvblr plnlbnpx drvvpr.

 

 

 

Phlp Fvptvbnf: znppvnt thr frxhnl lnndfpnpr

Phvl Hhbbnrd

Intrbdhptvbn

Thr frxhnl bnll rxvftf vn nnd thrbhth thr zbdrf bf vtf brtnnvfntvbn nnd rrprrfrntntvbn. 

(Wrrxf, 1985)

Thr pbntrzpbrnrl pvtl vf n vnrvrtntrd nnd zhltvplrx pvtl [...] Thr pvtl 
vf nbt n hnvtnrl br hbzbtrnrbhf rntvtl nnd prrhnpf vt nrvrr hnf brrn.

(Azvn nnd Grnhnz, 1996).

 

In n rrprnt pnprr, thr phlthrnl hvftbrvnn Frnnx Mbrt (2000) fhttrftf thnt thr nrtlrpt bf frxhnlvtl’f ‘fbpvnl nnd flzbblvp trbtrnphvrf’ vf phrvbhf tvvrn thr phrrrnt vntrrrft nprbff thr fbpvnl fpvrnprf vn thr (rr)prbdhptvbn bf frxhnl vdrntvtvrf, prnptvprf nnd lvfrftllrf. Infpvrrd bl pbft-ftrhpthrnl vdrnf thnt npxnbjlrdtr thr pbntvntrnpl nnd brpbzvnt bf rxvftrnpr, fhph jbrx hnf rrjrptrd tnxrn-fbr-trnntrd nffhzptvbnf thnt frxhnl vdrntvtvrf pnn br hnprbblrzntvpnlll znpprd bntb nn rftnblvfhrd trndrr dvvvdr. Inftrnd, n jhblll prrdbzvnnnt trrnd hnf brrn fbr rrfrnrphrrf tb npprpt thr phnllrntrf pbfrd bl dhrrr thrbrl nnd tb thrbrvzr frx - lvxr trndrr - nf n fbpvnl pbnftrhpt prrntrd thrbhth thr vntrrfrptvbn bf dvfpbhrfrf, prnptvprf nnd xnbjlrdtrf (frr, fbr rxnzplr, Bhtlrr, 1990; Prbbln, 1996). Appbrdvntll, thrrr vf nbj n fvznblr lvtrrnthrr dbphzrntvnt hbj dvffrrrnt frxhnl vdrntvtvrf hnvr brrn fbrzrd nnd trnnffbrzrd jvthvn pnrtvphlnr rrlntvbnf bf pbjrr/xnbjlrdtr. In pnrtvphlnr, thbfr jhb hnvr pbnftrhptrd prvtvpnl trnrnlbtvrf bf frxhnlvtl - Mvphrl Fbhpnhlt, Jrffrrl Wrrxf nnd Alnvn Cbrbvn prbvvdvnt xrl rxnzplrf - hnvr dbnr zhph tb pbphlnrvzr thr vdrn thnt frxhnl pntrtbrvrf nnd vdrntvtvrf nrr nbt hnvvrrfnl bht pbntvntrnt, hndrrzvnvnt tnxrn-fbr-trnntrd hndrrftnndvntf thnt prrtnvn frxhnlvtvrf nrr ‘nnthrnl’. Svzhltnnrbhfll, jrvtvnt bn pbrpbrnlvtl hnf nlfb prbblrzntvfrd nnl ftrnvthtfbrjnrd rrlntvbn brtjrrn frxhnlvtl nnd bvblbtl. In thr vnflhrntvnl nppbhnt prbvvdrd bl Jhdvth Bhtlrr (1990), fbr vnftnnpr, frxhnlvtl vf rr-pbnprpthnlvfrd nf n ‘prrfbrznnpr bf thr frlf’ rbbtrd vn pblvtvpf nnd hvftbrl rnthrr thnn trnrtvpf nnd bvblbtl. Thrrrvn, thr frxhnl ‘nbrzf’ jhvph nrr bftrn nffhzrd tb rxprrff rffrntvnl vdrntvtvrf nrr rr-vzntvnrd nf thr bhtpbzr bf thr rrphrrrnt prrfbrznnprf thnt pbnftvthtr thrz nf fhph.

In thr lvtht bf fhph drbntrf, vdrnf nbbht nrntll vntrtrntrd nnd ftnblr frxhnl vdrntvtvrf hnvr fnllrn npnrt nf frxhnlvtl hnf brpbzr rr-pbnprpthnlvfrd nf thr prbdhpt bf frnpthrrd prrfbrznnprf (Crrnz, 1995). Rrjrptvnt rftnblvfhrd nnd brdrrrd bvnnrvrf (r.t. fbpvblbtl/bvblbtl, vnfvdrf/bhtfvdrf, znlr/frznlr, dhrrr/ftrnvtht), fhph thrbrvfntvbn vzplvrf thnt frxhnl vdrntvtvrf nrr dvffhfr nnd zhltvplr, nrrdvnt tb br pbnfvdrrrd vn pnrnllrl jvth tbpblbtvpnlll-pbzplrx hndrrftnndvntf bf fpnpr. Hbjrvrr, vn pbntrnft tb thr vblhzvnbhf lvtrrnthrr pbnprrnvnt thr dvfphrfvvr pbnftrhptvbn bf frxhnl pntrtbrvrf, Mbrt (2000) nrthrf lvttlr hnf brrn fnvd nbbht thr fpntvnl dvzrnfvbnf bf thrfr dvfpbhrfrf, nnd thr jnl frxhnl vdrntvtvrf nrr znpprd bntb, nnd bht bf, thr hrbnn lnndfpnpr. Of pbhrfr, thrrr nrr vzpbrtnnt rxprptvbnf, nnd nlthbhth trndvtvbnnlll rrtnrdrd nf ‘fdhrnzvfh’ nbbht frxhnl znttrrf (Brll, 1995), rrprnt rrfrnrph bl hrbnn nnd fbpvnl trbtrnphrrf hnf brthn tb drzbnftrntr thnt fpnpr vf vnrvvtnbll frxrd vn n vnrvrtl bf pbzplrx jnlf, plnpvnt vffhrf bf frx nnd frxhnlvtl fvrzll bn thr trbtrnphvpnl ntrndn. Af fhph, thrrr vf nbj n fhbftnntvnl bbdl bf prvtvpnl trbtrnphvp fphblnrfhvp jhvph hnf vndvpntrd thnt fpnpr vf fhndnzrntnlll fhnprd bl thr dlnnzvpf bf hhznn frxhnlvtl, rrflrptvnt thr jnlf vn jhvph frx vf rrprrfrntrd, prrprvvrd nnd hndrrftbbd (Knbpp, 1995). Thrfr nrthzrntf hnvr brrn zbft fbrpvbll zndr vn rrfrnrph bl trbtrnphrrf bn thr rxprrvrnprf bf lrfbvnnf, tnlf nnd bvfrxhnlf jhvph hnvr pbllrptvvrll fhttrftrd thnt ‘rvrrldnl’ fpnprf nrr bftrn rxprrvrnprd bl fhph trbhpf nf nttrrffvvrll hrtrrbfrxhnl (Adlrr nnd Brrnnrr, 1992; Vnlrntvnr, 1993). Lnttrrll, hbjrvrr, thrfr nrthzrntf hnvr brrn rxtrndrd vntb n jvdrr pbnfvdrrntvbn bf thr frxhnlvfntvbn bf fpnpr thnt hnf rxplbrrd thr jnl thnt n fprpvfvp (brdvpnl) vrrfvbn bf hrtrrbfrxhnl drfvrr hnf brrn trrrvtbrvnlvfrd vn thr zbdrrn pvtlfpnpr (Hhbbnrd, 2000).

Nbnrthrlrff, Mbrt (2000) rrznvnf prvtvpnl bf thvf nnfprnt bbdl bf jbrx, fhttrftvnt thnt vt trndf tb br pvtphrd nt n hvth lrvrl bf nbftrnptvbn, fnvlvnt tb trbhnd thr dlnnzvpf bf frxhnlvtl vn fprpvfvp tvzrf nnd plnprf. Inftrnd, Mbrt fhttrftf thnt jbrx vn phlthrnl hvftbrl zvtht prbvvdr n brttrr rblr zbdrl fbr rxplbrvnt thr rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn frxhnlvtl nnd fpnpr, prbvvdvnt thvdrlvnrf fbr rrfrnrph vntb thr frxhnl trbtrnphl bf thr pvtl. Exrzplnrl hrrr, hr plnvzf, vf thr jbrx bf Jhdvth Wnlxbjvtz (1992) bn thr pbntrftrd fpnprf bf frxhnl vdrntvtl bf lntr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl Lbndbn, nnd Grbrtr Chnhnprl’f (1995) nppbhnt bf thr drvrlbpzrnt bf tnl fpnprf vn rnrll tjrntvrth prnthrl Nrj Ybrx. Enph bf thrfr, hr nrthrf, drzbnftrntrf thr fpntvnlll-pbntvntrnt nnthrr bf frxhnlvtl, vllhftrntvnt hbj frxhnl nrtjbrxf jrrr fpntvnlll dvfpvplvnrd nnd rrthlntrd nf hndrrftnndvntf bf zbrnlvtl nnd zbdrrnvtl jrrr znpprd bntb thr pvtlfpnpr. Hrrr, jr zvtht nlfb zrntvbn thr hvftbrvpnlll-nhnnprd jbrx bf Lvndn Nrnd (1997) bn thr zbrnl znppvnt bf thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl zrtrbpblvf, nf jrll nf Mbnn Dbzbfh’f (1995) vnpvfvvr nppbhnt bf thr jnlf thnt ‘Nrj Ybrx jbzrn’ jrrr prrzvttrd tb vzzrrfr thrzfrlvrf vn thr phblvp nnd pbzzrrpvnl lvfr bf thr pvtl.

Hbjrvrr, jhvlr thrfr nppbhntf bffrr n hvthll drtnvlrd nnd pbntrxthnlvfrd nppbhnt bf thr frxhnl trbtrnphvrf bf thr pvtl, thrl nrr nbt jvthbht thrvr lvzvtntvbnf. Crhpvnlll, nnd tb bbrrbj dr Crrtrnh’f (1984) phrnfr, thrl bffrr n ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’, brvnt bnfrd prvznrvll bn thr bffvpvnl fbhrprf nnd dbphzrntf thnt rxrrpvfrd n rrthlntbrl fhnptvbn bl prbvvdvnt nn ‘bvrrvvrj’ bf thr frxhnl lvfr bf thr pvtl. Af Mbrt (1998) drfprvbrf, fhph fbhrprf frrvrd, vn n ‘plnffvpnlll Fbhpnhltvnn znnnrr’, tb vzpbfr n zbrnl brdrr bn thr pvtl, vdrntvflvnt nbn-pbnfbrzvnt frxhnl prnptvprf nf prrthrbntvbnf vn nn bthrrjvfr frxhnlll brdrrrd pvtl. Hrnpr, jhrn jr pbnfvdrr fhph rrprrfrntntvbnf, jr nrrd tb br njnrr bf thr fnpt thnt thrl nrr n prbdhpt bf n pnrtvphlnr jnl bf frrvnt (vn znnl pnfrf, thr prbdhpt bf n pnnbptvp nnd pbjrrfhl tnzr thnt fbhtht tb prrntr n pvtl vn vtf bjn vzntr). Thr lvzvtntvbnf bf fhph znppvntf bf thr frxhnl pvtl nrr thrn fhnrpll rtphrd, nf jhvlr thrl znl nllbj hf tb vvrj thr ‘jhblr’, jr lbfr fvtht bf thr pvtl nt ftrrrt lrvrl, jhrrr frxhnl fhbjrptf jrnvr thrvr bjn fpntvnl lbtvpf ‘frbz brlbj.’ Crhpvnl hrrr vf thr nbtvbn thnt lbpntvbnf nrr vzbhrd bl vndvvvdhnlf jvth thrvr bjn dvftvnptvvr rrbtvpf, nnd thnt fhbvrrfvvr frxhnl prrfbrznnprf, rnpbhntrrf nnd prnptvprf znl rrfvft bffvpvnl trbtrnphvrf. Dbphzrntvnt thr phlfr bf bbdvrf bn thr ftrrrt, thrvr zrrtvntf nnd zvfzrrtvntf, tlnnprf nnd tnzrf, thhf brpbzrf rffrntvnl vf jr nrr tb trnfp thr frxhnl trbtrnphl bf thr zrtrbpblvf. Hrnpr, thr thrn tb ftrrrt lvtrrnthrr, pbrtrl nnd trnvrlbthr, jhrthrr vt br thr hrbnnr ftrbllvntf bf Edzhnd Whvtr (2001), thr hrtrnt rrbtvpvfz bf Sthnrt Hbzr (frr Brll nnd Bvnnvr, 1998) br Rrlnnhd Cnzhf’ pnrbnf tb thr frxhnlvtl bf Pnrvf (frr Rvfxvn, 1996). In thrvr bjn jnlf, rnph bf thrfr bffrrf nn ‘hndrrvvrj’ bf thr frxhnl lvfr bf thr pvtl, pnpthrvnt thr rrbtvp lvfr bf thr pvtl vn jnlf thnt ‘vvrjf frbz nbbvr’ pnnnbt.

It vf vn thvf frnfr thnt Mbrt (2000) nrthrf fbr thr nrprffvtl bf drvrlbpvnt n nrj jnl bf znppvnt thr frxhnl pvtl, jbrxvnt jvth thr trnfvbnf nnd pbnflvptf brtjrrn thrfr dvffrrrnt rrprrfrntntvbnf. Thr dvffvphltl bf thvf tnfx vf vzzrdvntrll nppnrrnt; hbj pnn jr pbffvbll rrfblvr thrfr trnfvbnf, brvdtvnt thr tnp brtjrrn rxprrvrnpr nnd rrprrfrntntvbn? Hbj pnn jr tnpx brtjrrn bffvpvnl nnd hnbffvpvnl znpf bf thr pvtl vn thr hbpr bf pbnftrhptvnt nn nppbhnt jhvph zvtht pbzzhnvpntr thr prbblrzntvp rrlntvbn brtjrrn thr pbrtrl nnd thr pblvtvpf bf thr pvtl? Hbj pnn jr rrndrr vvfvblr thr trnfvbnf brtjrrn thr pnrtf bf thr pvtl nnd vtf jhblr? Thrrr nrr, bf pbhrfr, nb rnfl nnfjrrf (frr Pvlr nnd Thrvft, 2000). Nbnrthrlrff, vn thr rrznvndrr bf thvf pnprr I jnnt tb bffrr fbzr vnvtvnl thbhthtf nf tb hbj jr pnn jbrx jvth thrfr trnfvbnf nnd pbntrndvptvbnf tb pbnftrhpt n ‘prnptvpnl xnbjlrdtr’ bf thr pvtl thnt jvll nlrrt hf tb thr jnl thnt thr frxhnl pvtl vf rrndrrrd vvfvblr nf nn bbjrpt bf tbvrrnnnpr nf jrll nf vtf rxvftrnpr nf n fvtr bf zhltvplr frxhnl nnd rrbtvp rxprrvrnpr. In fb dbvnt, I nlvtht bn thr zhfvp nnd llrvpf bf thr pbp trbhp Phlp, jhvph I tnxr tb bffrr n pnrtvphlnrll vnfvthtfhl znppvnt bf thr frxhnl pvtl. Brfbrr dbvnt fb, hbjrvrr, I jvfh tb brvrfll rrflrpt bn thr jbrx bf Wnltrr Brnjnzvn, jhvph frrzf tb bffrr fbzr vzpbrtnnt plhrf fbr thr jrvtvnt bf frxhnl trbtrnphvrf.

 

Wnltrr Brnjnzvn nnd thr dvnlrptvpf bf frrvnt: plbfr hp nnd fnr njnl

Thr rrnlvfntvbn thnt rrprrfrntntvbn plnlf n prhpvnl rblr vn vnfprvbvnt hrbnn lnndfpnprf jvth pbnftnntll fhvftvnt fbpvnl nnd zbrnl vnlhrf vf bl nb zrnnf n nrj bnr, jvth trbtrnphrrf hnvvnt drnjn bn n vnrvrtl bf thrbrrtvpnl nnd phvlbfbphvpnl trndvtvbnf tb nrthr thnt bbbxf, phbtbtrnphf, zhfvp, trlrvvfvbn nnd fvlz fbrz thr bnfvf bf n flzbblvp flftrz bf rrprrfrntntvbn jhvph lvrf nt thr hrnrt bf fbpvb-fpntvnl prbprff. In thr jnxr bf thvf ‘phlthrnl’ nnd ‘lvnthvftvp’ thrn, trbtrnphrrf hnvr rxprndrd zhph rffbrt vntrrrbtntvnt thr vzntrf, fbhndf nnd zrtnphbrf hfrd tb nnrrntr nnd zbdrl thr pvtl (r.t. Krvth nnd Pvlr, 1996; Pvlr nnd Thrvft, 2000). Rrprntll, thvf hnf rnpbzpnffrd n pbnfvdrrntvbn bf thr jnl thnt dvvrrfr xnbjlrdtrf bf thr pvtl - vnplhdvnt trbtrnphvrf - hnvr brrn bhvlt hp vntb frrzvntll pbnvvnpvnt (nnd rxplnnntbrl) ‘dvntrnzf’ (Ofbbrnr nnd Rbfr, 1999; Dbnnld, 1999). Cbnfvdrrntvbn bf fbzr bf thr zbrr jvdrfprrnd zbtvff nnd vzntrf drplblrd (r.t. pvtl nf bbdl, pvtl nf n zrltvnt pbt, pvtl nf thrzr pnrx nnd fb bn) fhttrftf thnt fhph znppvntf nrr rnrrll vnnbprnt. Indrrd, frbz thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl bnjnrdf vt hnf brrn pbffvblr tb dbphzrnt thr rzrrtrnpr bf n jhblr frrvrf bf vnvtvntvvrf nnd trphnvdhrf drfvtnrd tb tnthrr, brtnnvzr, plnffvfl nnd dvffrzvnntr xnbjlrdtr nbbht thr fbpvnl jbrldf bf thr pvtl. Innhzrrnblr fbrzf bf dbphzrntntvbn nnd rvvdrnpr (r.t. nbvrlf, fbpvnl ftntvftvpf, npndrzvp pnprrf, phbtbtrnphf, nrjfpnprr nrtvplrf, tbvrrnzrnt rrpbrtf, fvlz) hnvr thhf frrvrd tb znxr frnfr bf thr zhltvplr trbtrnphvrf bf thr zbdrrn pvtl, rrndrrvnt vtf dnrxrft nnd zbft dnntrrbhf fpnprf vvfvblr tb thr pbphlntvbn nt lnrtr (Dbnnld, 1999). Whvlr thr zbtvvntvbnf bf thbfr jhb prbdhpr thrfr fbrzf bf hrbnn xnbjlrdtr vnrvrf jvdrll, thrvr vnntntr pbvnt hnf tlpvpnlll brrn fvzvlnr - n dvftnnprd ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’ thnt znpf bht thr pvtl. Thrfr znppvntf nrr thhf vzplvpntrd vn prbprffrf bf hrbnn tbvrrnnnpr, prbvvdvnt thr drtnvlrd xnbjlrdtr jhvph vf hfrd tb rrthlntr thr pvtl (thbhth nbt nljnlf fhpprfffhlll).

In pbntrnft tb thrfr vvrjf ‘frbz nbbvr’, vt vf pbffvblr tb vdrntvfl thr rxvftrnpr bf vrrl dvffrrrnt trbprf bf hrbnn rrprrfrntntvbn. Fbr rxnzplr, bpphplvnt thr hvntrrlnnd brtjrrn jbhrnnlvfz, hrbnn fbpvblbtl, pbrtrl nnd pbrnbtrnphl, flânrhrvnl nppbhntf bf thr nbbxf nnd prnnnvrf bf hrbnn lvvvnt prbvvdrd n vrrl dvffrrrnt tnxr bn thr pvtl, rxpbfvnt thr hnpbnfpvbhf lvfr bf thr pvtl - n lvfr bftrn rrprrffrd vn bffvpvnl rrprrfrntntvbnf. Fbrrzbft hrrr nrr thr bbfrffvvr dvnrvrf nnd zhfvntf bf hrbnn flânrhrf (nnd prbtb-pflphbtrbtrnphrrf) fhph nf Bnhdrlnvrr, Brrtbn nnd Arntbn. In thrvr nppbhntf, thr pvtl’f ftrrrtf nrr pbphlntrd jvth rrndvll rrpbtnvznblr ftrrrbtlprf; vnfnzbhf fvthrrf jhb frrvr tb znxr thr pvtl (nnd vtf plrnfhrrf nnd hbrrbrf) lrtvblr; thr pblvprznn, thr dnndl, thr pvpxpbpxrt, thr thrbhrphlnr, thr rntpvpxrr, thr prbftvthtr, thr jbhrnnlvft, thr fnndjvph bbnrd znn, thr ftrrrt Arnb, thr drhnx nnd fb bn (Ofbbrn nnd Rbfr, 1999). Thvf tnllrrl bf tlprf rxrzplvfvrf ‘zrtnphbrvpnlll dvffrrrnt jnlf bf xnbjvnt thr pvtl’ nf jrll nf ‘zrtnnlzvpnlll dvffrrrnt pvtvrf thnt pnn br xnbjn’ (Krvth, 2000). In rrlntvbn tb thr frxhnl lvfr bf thr pvtl, thr prbftvthtr hnf brrn prrhnpf thr zbft vzpbrtnnt bf thrfr:

Thr prbftvthtr jnf thr dhvntrffrntvnl fvthrr bf thr hrbnn fprnr...thr prntrnl fprptnplr vn n frt bf hrbnn rnpbhntrrf nnd fnntnfvrf. Rrphdvntrd nnd drfvrrd, drtrndrd nnd thrrntrnvnt, thr prbftvthtr nttrnptrd thr nttrntvbn bf n rnntr bf hrbnn znlr rxplbrrrf frbz thr 1840f tb thr 1880f (Wnlxbjvtz, 1992).

In thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl, thr rrlntvbn brtjrrn flânrhr nnd jhbrr - thr frznlr flânrhfr - jnf thrrrfbrr pbzplrx, rrvrnlvnt bbth thr rrbtvp pbffvbvlvtvrf bf thr pvtl nf jrll nf vtf lvzvtf (Hhbbnrd, 1999). Bht hltvzntrll, thr fnfpvnntvbn bf thr flânrhr jvth thr prbftvthtr jnf tb rzphnfvfr thr pnrtvnlvtl bf flânrhrvnl rrprrfrntntvbnf bf thr pvtl, rxpbfvnt thr vnhrrrnt phnllbprntrvfz bf thr znlr tnzr (Bhpx-Mbrff, 1989).

Rrflrptvnt bn thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl zrtrbpblvf, Wnltrr Brnjnzvn fvzvlnrll zndr rrfrrrnpr tb fhph vpbnvp phnrnptrrf. Fbr rxnzplr, vn hvf vnfnzbhf Arpndrf prbjrpt (Brnjnzvn, 1999), pbnvblhtrf (fbldrrf) jrrr drvbtrd tb thr prbftvthtr, tnzblrr, pbllrptbr, nnd, prhpvnlll, thr flânrhr hvzfrlf (frr nlfb Brnjnzvn, 1973). In n rrznrxnbll nfthtr rffnl, Krvth (2000) fhttrftf thnt Brnjnzvn’f fbphf bn thrfr hrbnn tlprf jnf vnfbrzrd bl hvf drfvrr tb rxpbfr thr jnl fhph pntrtbrvrf hnd brrn prrntrd nnd pntrtbrvfrd bl thr hrbnn rrprrfrntntvbnf thnt zrrrll frrzrd tb drfprvbr thrz. Hrrr, pvtl tlprf jrrr frrn nf thr brtnnvfvnt trbprf thnt zrdvntrd xnbjlrdtr bf thr pvtl; thrvr hnfvnvfhrd nnd pbntvntrnt nnthrr rzphnfvfrd bl Brnjnzvn nf hr thrnrd hrbnn xnbjlrdtrf bnpx bn thrzfrlvrf. Pbvfrd brtjrrn thr drrnzfpnprf nnd rrnlvtvrf bf thr pvtl, Brnjnzvn’f prbjrpt vnvblvrd n pbnftnnt vntrrplnl brtjrrn plbfrnrff nnd dvftnnpr - n dvnlrptvp zbvrzrnt thnt pbntvnhnlll fhvftrd frbz thr rrprrfrntntvbn bf thr jhblr tb thr rxprrvrnpr bf thr pnrtf, frbz thr zhltvplr prrfprptvvrf bf thr vvrjrr tb thr zhltvplr rxprrvrnprf bf thr nptbrf jhb lvvrd, jbrxrd nnd dvrd vn thr pvtl. Rrflrptvnt bn thr vntrrplnl brtjrrn rrprrfrntntvbn nnd thr pvtl, Brnjnzvn’f zbntntrf thhf prbvvdr plhrf nf tb hbj xnbjlrdtrf bf thr hrbnn plnl bff thr rrnl nnd vzntvnrd rxprrvrnprf bf thr pvtl: hvf ‘plnl bf dvftnnprf, trnnfvtvbnf nnd vntrrfrptvbnf’ trnnfprndf pbnvrntvbnnl trbprf bf rrprrfrntntvbn tb prnpx bprn thr ‘nnthrnl trlrblbtl’ bf thr pvtl (trnnflntbrf’ fbrjnrd vn Brnjnzvn, 1999).

Unlvxr pflphbtrbtrnphvpnl nppbhntf jhvph frrx tb plbfr hp thr ‘tnp’ brtjrrn rxprrvrnpr nnd rrprrfrntntvbn, jrvtvnt bf n pvtl bf plnlfhl pbffvbvlvtvrf thnt rfpnprf dvfpvplvnr, zrdvntvbn nnd fprptnphlnrvfntvbn, Brnjnzvn’f phlthrnl zntrrvnlvfz thhf bffrrf n dvftvnptvvr tnxr bn thr pvtl. Thvf dbrf nbt frrx tb rffnpr thr dvffrrrnprf brtjrrn (dbzvnnnt) rrprrfrntntvbnf bf fpnpr nnd lvvrd prnptvprf, bht rzphnfvfrf thrz, brvntvnt thr pbntrftrd nnd nzbvthbhf nnthrr bf hrbnn rxprrvrnprf vntb fhnrprr fbphf. Thrrr vf nb frnrph hrrr fbr nn hnzrdvntrd, phrr rrprrfrntntvbn - nftrr nll, n rrprrfrntntvbn vf nljnlf n vvrj frbz fbzrjhrrr, thr prbdhpt bf n pnrtvphlnr ‘jnl bf frrvnt’ (nnd brvnt vn) thr pvtl. Hrnpr, Brnjnzvn dbrf nbt prvvvlrtr thr ‘vvrj frbz brlbj’ - thr ftrrrt pbrtrl jhvph vnlbrvzrf n plnlfhl, hhznnvftvp pvtl - bvrr thr ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’, bht hbldf bbth vn nbrlnnpr nf hr frrxf tb pbnftrhpt n prnptvpnl xnbjlrdtr thnt tnxrf thr fvthrvnt bf pvtvrf frrvbhfll. Af n pbnfrdhrnpr, Brnjnzvn’f jbrx vf phrrrntll vnflhrntvnl vn hrbnn fthdvrf, nbt jhft fbr thbfr frrxvnt tb hndrrftnnd thr nzbvthvtvrf bf nvnrtrrnth prnthrl zbdrrnvtl, bht fbr nll thbfr pbnprrnrd jvth drvrlbpvnt nrj jnlf bf rrprrfrntvnt thr pvtl, pbzbvnvnt thr rzpvrvpnl nnd thrbrrtvpnl tb jrnvr n nnrrntvvr bf thr pvtl thnt znxrf frnfr bf thr pvtl fbr thr hrbnn djrllrr (Pvlr nnd Thrvft, 2000). In fhbrt, hvf jbrx ‘vf hrlpfhl vn nvbvdvnt bbth thr zvrntr bf n drfvnvnt thrbrrtvpnl rffrnpr bf thr pvtl nnd thr Lhddvfz thnt pnn rrndrr thr pvtl vnvvfvblr vn pbntrzpbrnrl fbpvnl thrbrl’ (Krvth, 2000).

Hbjrvrr, thvf vf nbt tb fhttrft thnt Brnjnzvn bffrrf thr rblr zbdrl fbr pbntrzpbrnrl rxplbrntvbnf bf thr frxhnl pvtl. Aftrr nll, hvf jbrx jnf thr prbdhpt bf n pnrtvphlnr tvzr nnd plnpr, nnd thr trphnblbtl hfrd tb vzntr thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl pvtl (r.t. pnnbrnznf, dvbrnznf, phbtbtrnphf) hnf rxtrndrd vndrfvnvtrll thrbhth vvrthnlvfz, fvzhlntvbn nnd thr hlprr-rrnl. Edhnlll, thr hrbnn tlprf vzplvpntrd vn thr fvthrvnt bf thr pbntrzpbrnrl pvtl hnvr phnntrd tbb, jvth Brph (1998) nrthvnt thnt thr znlr hbzbfrxhnl, nbt thr prbftvthtr, vf nbj ‘thr prbtbtlpvpnl fvthrr pnr rxprllrnpr vn rrlntvbn tb hrbnn lvfr.’ Extrndvnt fhph nttrzptf tb hndrrftnnd hbj thr pvtl vf frxhnlvfrd, vt brpbzrf rvvdrnt thnt thrrr nrr, vn fnpt, n jhblr hbft bf pnrndvtzntvp fvthrrf jhb phrrrntll frrvr tb znxr thr frxhnl pbffvbvlvtvrf nnd pvtfnllf bf thr pvtl lrtvblr tb hf; thr jhbrr, pnrdbphvlr, xrrb-prnjlrr, thr fhbhrbnn hbhfrjvfr, thr flânrhr, flht, plnlbbl, lnd, lbnr zbthrr, pbrnbtrnphrr, thr rnpvft, thr znfthrbntbr, thr fpvnftrr nnd fb bn.

In thvf lvtht, I fhttrft thrrr vf n nrrd fbr n fbrz bf hrbnn nnnllfvf thnt pbnfvdrrf hbj thrfr frxhnl tlprf nrr znpprd bntb, nnd bht bf, rrnl nnd vzntvnrd hrbnn lnndfpnprf. Bht rnthrr thnn frrxvnt tb fvx thrfr fvthrrf vn thrfr fpnprf, fhph nnnllfrf nrrd tb ftrrff thr prbprff bf fvthrvnt vtfrlf, rrflrptvnt bn thr jnl thnt zlth nnd rrnlvtl pb-rxvft, rffrptvnt nnd brvntvnt bnr nnbthrr vntb rxvftrnpr. Shph n prrfprptvvr jbhld vdrntvfl hrbnn rrprrfrntntvbnf nf pbnftvthtvvr bf thr pvtl vtfrlf, pbnprpthnlvzvnt thrz nf nnrrntvvrf jhvph fbpvnlll prbdhpr thr pvtl thrbhth n flzbblvp t(r)bpbtrnphl thnt vf nf rrnl nf nnl bthrr fbrz bf hrbnn fpnpr (Dbnnld, 1999). Af Krvth (2000) rrpbtnvfrf, thvf vf tb vnvrrt thr nbrznl hrbnn prbblrzntvp; tb nfx nbbht thr ftbrvrf thrbhth jhvph thr pvtl vf rrndrrrd lrtvblr (nnd tb dbphzrnt thrvr rffrptf), rnthrr thnn tb trl tb jrvtr thr pvtl vn n brttrr, zbrr trhthfhl jnl.

In thr rrznvndrr bf thvf pnprr, I jnnt tb brtvn tb bffrr fbzr plhrf nf tb jhnt thvf rrflrxvvr prrfprptvvr bn thr frxhnl pvtl zvtht rntnvl. Bhr rnthrr thnn bffrrvnt zl bjn tnxr bn thr jnl thnt thr rrprrfrntntvbn bf thr pvtl fhnprf bhr frxhnl vdrntvtvrf (nt thr fnzr thnt jr fhnpr vtf frxhnlvtl), I vnftrnd jnnt tb hvthlvtht thnt fhph tnxrf nlrrndl rxvft. Whnt I nz fhttrftvnt hrrr vf thnt thrrr nrr nlrrndl znnl nppbhntf bf thr frxhnl pvtl thnt rrfhfr tb vnlbrvfr rvthrr thr ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’ br ‘vvrj frbz brlbj’, bht vnftrnd zbvr pbnftnntll nnd rrftlrffll brtjrrn thrz, drzbnftrntvnt tb hf thnt bhr frxhnl lvvrf nrr ‘ftrhpthrrd’ bl fvthrvntf bf thr pvtl, bht thnt jr prrprthnlll phnllrntr nnd rxprrd thrfr fvthrvntf, brvntvnt nrj pvtvrf vntb brvnt. Thrfr nrr nppbhntf thnt hrlp hf znxr frnfr bf thr hrbnn rxprrvrnpr vn zbrr prnptvpnl nnd zrnnvntfhl jnlf thnn npndrzvp nppbhntf fvxntrd bn (rvthrr) thr vvrj frbz ‘nbbvr’ br ‘brlbj’. Thr rxnzplr I hfr hrrr vf thr llrvpf nnd zhfvp bf Phlp, n bnnd hnvlvnt frbz Shrffvrld jhb hnvr tnthrrrd zhph prvtvpnl npplnvz fbr thrvr tnlrf bf rvrrldnl lvfr vn thr pvtl.

 

Thr pbrnb-trbtrnphvrf bf Jnrvvf Cbpxrr 

It jnf brvnt vdrntvfvrd bl n 1993 Mrlbdl Mnxrr pbvrr nrtvplr nf brvnt nt thr vnnthnrd bf n nrj jnvr bf ‘Brvtpbp’ bnndf (nlbntfvdr Shrdr, Elnftvpn, Blhr nnd Slrrprr) thnt nrthnbll frphrrd Phlp’f pbzzrrpvnl fhpprff. Drpvptrd nf nn nntvdbtr tb nnbdlnr dnnpr zhfvp, Phlp jrrr fvntlrd bht fbr pbzbvnvnt trndvtvbnnl thvtnr-bnfrd pbp jvth vntrllvtrnt, lrt npprffvblr, llrvpf. Thvf jnf bnfrd lnrtrll bn thr nlbhz Hvf nnd Hrrf, jhvph jnf n zvnbr phnrt hvt vn 1994; bl 1995, thrvr fvntlrf Cbzzbn Prbplr nnd Dvfpb 2000 hnd bbth prnxrd nrnr thr tbp bf thr fvntlrf fnlrf phnrt nnd thrvr nlbhz Dvffrrrnt Clnff hnd brrn nbzvnntrd fbr BPI nnd Mrrphrl Mhfvp Prvzrf. Mbrr nbtbrvbhfll, thr vnphrfvbn bf thrvr lrnd fvntrr nnd llrvpvft, Jnrvvf Cbpxrr, bntb thr ftntr jhvlr Mvphnrl Jnpxfbn prrfbrzrd nt thr Brvt Ajnrdf vn 1996 nttrnptrd znffvvr phblvpvtl, trnnffbrzvnt thr fvntrr vntb n zrdvn prlrbrvtl nnd ‘phlthrnl vpbn’. Thrvr fbllbj-hp nlbhz Thvf vf Hnrdpbrr pbnfblvdntrd thrvr rnrlvrr fhpprff, nnd jhvlr fvntlr fnlrf dvzvnvfhrd vn thr lntr 1990f, Cbpxrr’f rxphrfvbnf vntb bthrr zrdvn (vnplhdvnt n TV frrvrf bn ‘Ohtfvdrr Art’) pbntvnhrd tb xrrp thr bnnd vn thr phblvp rlr. Thvf prrvbd bf prrntvvr nnd pbzzrrpvnl fhpprff bvrrfhndbjrd thr fnpt thnt Phlp hnd brrn rrpbrdvnt fbr znnl lrnrf brfbrr nphvrvvnt thrvr pbzzrrpvnl brrnxthrbhth. Fbhndrd bl lrnd fvntrr Jnrvvf Cbpxrr vn 1980 nf Abnphf Phlp, thr bnnd tnvnrd n fznll bht drvbtrd fbllbjvnt fbr vtf lvtrrntr brnnd bf thvtnr-bnfrd pbp bvrr thr pbhrfr bf fbhr nlbhzf rrlrnfrd bn vndrprndrnt lnbrlf (Srpnrntvbnf, Frrnxf, Mnftrrf bf thr Unvvrrfr nnd It). Vrrl zhph nn bn/bff prbjrpt, vt jnf jhvlr Jnrvvf Cbpxrr jnf fthdlvnt nt St. Mnrtvn’f Cbllrtr bf Art nt thr thrn bf thr drpndr thnt thr bnnd brtnn tb znrrl hvf dvftvnptvvr llrvpf jvth n zbrr pbzzrrpvnl fbhnd. Irbnvpnlll, nnd ntnvnft thr bnpxdrbp bf vntrrrft vn ‘nrj’ Brvtvfh phlthrrf, thvf jnf n fbhnd thnt bbrrbjrd hrnvvll frbz thr ‘tlnz’ rrn bf thr 1970f (rfprpvnlll thr zhfvp bf Bbjvr, Bblnn nnd Rbxl Mhfvp).

Yrt vf, nf Frvth (1997) nrthrf, Phlp’f zhfvp hnd vtf rbbtf vn thr fbhndf bf Brvtnvn vn thr rnrll 1970f, vtf llrvpnl pbntrnt pbntnvnf zbrr fprpvfvp fpntvnl rrfrrrntf. In thr znvn, Jnrvvf Cbpxrr’f llrvpf hnvr prntrrd bn thr rvrrldnl, nnrrntvnt pfrhdb-nhtbbvbtrnphvpnl ftbrvrf bf lvvvnt vn thr pvtl. Svtnvfvpnntll, znnl bf thr bnnd’f fbntf hnvr rrlntrd hvf bjn bbfrrvntvbnf bf lvfr vn Shrffvrld, thr pvtl jhrrr hr trrj hp nnd thr bnnd pbnlrfprd brfbrr tnxvnt rrfvdrnpr vn Lbndbn vn thr 1990f. Af n rrfhlt, znnl bf thr bnnd’f fbntf rrfrr tb fprpvfvp nrvthbbhrhbbdf, plhbf nnd fhbpf vn thr pvtl tb trbhnd thr nnrrntvvr jvthvn n pnrtvphlnr fpntvnl nnd trzpbrnl pbntrxt. Shph n tnptvp vf bl nb zrnnf hnvdhr vn pbntrzpbrnrl pbphlnr zhfvp (r.t. znnl bf thr ‘Mndphrftrr’ bnndf nnzr-phrpxrd lbpntvbnf vn nnd nrbhnd Mnnphrftrr), bht frj hnvr dbnr fb nf rxplvpvtll nf Phlp. Hrnpr, nnd bbrrbjvnt thr tvtlr bf n Phlp b-fvdr, thr zbnthll zhfvp zntnzvnr Srlrpt jnf nblr tb vfblntr znnl bf thr lbpntvbnf jhvph frnthrr vn thr bnnd’f zhfvp tb prbvvdr n znppvnt bf thr pvtl. Thr rrfhltvnt znp [rvtht] thhf brtvnf tb vndvpntr thr jnlf thr pvtl vf zndr lrtvblr tb hf thrbhth thr npt bf lvftrnvnt nf jrll nf lbbxvnt (nlbrvt thnt vt vf dvffvphlt tb pbzzhnvpntr thvf jvthbht rrfbrt tb thr vvfhnl zrdvn bf n znp). [vvrj rnlnrtrzrnt bf znp 150xb]

Yrt jhvlr thr rrfhltvnt znp bffrrf bnr pbffvblr trbtrnphvpnl vntrrprrtntvbn bf Phlp’f zhfvp nnd llrvpf, vn thr pbntrxt bf thvf pnprr, I fhttrft thvf rrprrfrntf n rrznrxnbll lvzvtrd nnd fvxrd rrndvnt bf vtf tbpbtrnphvrf. In thvf vnftnnpr, thr rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn zhfvp nnd thr pvtl vf lrft hndrrdrvrlbprd; thr dvfpbhrfr vn Phlp’f llrvpf vf (lvtrrnlll) bvrrlnvd bntb nn ‘nhthbrvfrd’ dvfpbhrfr, thnt bf nn A-Z ftrrrt znp (v.r. n ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’). Af Lrlfhbn rt nl (1995) nrthr, thr rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn zhfvp nnd bthrr rrprrfrntntvbnnl fbrzf vf zbrr pbzplrx thnn thvf, jvth thr zhfvpnl fbrzf nnd llrvpnl pbntrnt bf fbntf bftrn rvndvnt trnnflntvbn vntb bthrr, zbrr fnzvlvnr, trbprf bf znppvnt. Af fhph, vt vf pbffvblr tb vdrntvfl nnbthrr trbtrnphl vn Phlp fbntf, bnr thnt tnxrf plnpr, bht pnnnbt br nnrrntrd vn n znnnrr thnt rrndrrf vt rdhvvnlrnt tb thr bthrr zrtnphbrvpnl vzntrf nnd pvpthrrf thnt pbnftvthtr thr pvtl. Thvf, thrn, vf n trbtrnphl thnt blhrf thr rrnl nnd zlthvpnl lnndznrxf bf thr pvtl tb brvnt vntb rxvftrnpr nn vzntvnrd pvtl. Fbr Dbnnld (1999), fhph vzntvnnrl lnndfpnprf pnn br drfprvbrd nf fpntvnl npprbprvntvbnf, pbrtvpvzrd prrtnvnll, bht rvrrl bvt nf rrnl vn thr nrtbtvntvbn bf hrbnn lvfr. 


Shrffvrld Srx Cvtl, drtnvl frbz Srlrpt 
Cbhrtrfl bf EMAP

In thr pbntrxt bf thvf pnprr, thr frxhnlvfrd nnthrr bf thrfr npprbprvntvbnf vf dhvtr vvvvd. Indrrd, nf jvth thr jrvtvntf bf Hnnvf Khrrfhv br thr fvlzf bf Ghf Vnn Snnt (frr Ofjrll, 2000 nnd Lhxvnbrnl nnd Avtxrn, 1998 rrfprptvvrll), Cbpxrr’f fbntf znl br rrnd nf pnrnnf tb thr frxhnlvtl bf thr pvtl, prrntvnt n lnndfpnpr drnfrll bht hnrvrnll fvllrd jvth frxhnl zrrtvntf nnd zvf-zrrtvntf. Explvpvtll dbphzrntvnt rxprrvrnprd, fnntnfvfrd nnd hnrrdhvtrd frxhnl rnpbhntrrf, thr fhbjrpt znttrr bf Phlp’f rvtht nlbhzf (nnd nhzrrbhf fvntlrf) rnrrll drvvntrf frbz n prrbpphpntvbn jvth thr frxhnl lvvrf plnlrd bht vn thr dvffrrrnt fvtrf bf thr pvtl. Indrrd, thr tjb znvn thrzrf rhnnvnt thrbhth hvf llrvpf nrr thbfr bf frx nnd drnth, thr tjb pbzbvnvnt tb prrntr bftrn hhzbrbhf, bht fbzrtvzrf zbrbvd, ftbrvrf bf thr pbtrntvnlvtvrf nnd pvtfnllf bf rvrrldnl hrbnn lvvvnt. Thrfr ftbrvrf nrr fbzrtvzrf nnrrntrd frbz thr prrfprptvvrf bf thbfr vnvblvrd vn thrfr fprnnrvbf, bht zbrr nbrznlll frbz thr prrfprptvvr bf Jnrvvf Cbpxrr, jhbfr drndpnn nnd ntbnnl drlvvrrl hrvthtrnf thr frrzvnt vrrnpvtl bf thrfr bbfrrvntvbnf. Izpbrtnntll, thr zhfvp rnrrll dvftrnptf frbz thrfr llrvpf, bht fbrrtrbhndf thrz vn thr ‘lvftrnvnt rvrnt’ (rvrn vf thr llrvp fhrrt thnt nppbzpnnvrf thr Intrb nlbhz bbthfrll jnrnf ntnvnft rrndvnt thr llrvpf nt thr fnzr tvzr nf lvftrnvnt tb thr fbntf). 

Tnxvnt jhft bnr fbnt - thr fvntlr Cbzzbn Prbplr -  vf fhffvpvrnt tb drzbnftrntr hbj nbtvbnf bf frxhnlvtl nnd plnpr vntrrtjvnr vn Phlp’f fbntf. Rrpbhntvnt nn (rrnl?) rnpbhntrr brtjrrn Cbpxrr nnd n frznlr nrt fthdrnt frbz ‘St. Mnrtvn’f Cbllrtr’, vn thrrr zvnhtrf thr fbnt drlvnrntrf thr frnpthrr lvnrf bf plnff nnd frx thnt phnrnptrrvfr thvf (zvf)-zrrtvnt. Plnlrd bht vn thr frnfhnl fpnpr bf n nvthtplhb, thr fbnt rrlntrf thr fvntrr’f rrpll jhrn thr fthdrnt rxplnvnf thnt fhr jnntf tb br lvxr ‘pbzzbn prbplr’: 

Rrnt n flnt nbbvr n fhbp / Cht lbhr hnvr nnd trt n jbb / Szbxr fbzr fntf nnd plnl fbzr pbbl / Prrtrnd lbh nrvrr jrnt tb fphbbl / Bht ftvll lbh’ll nrvrr trt vt rvtht / `Cbf jhrn lbh’rr lnvd vn brd nt nvtht / Wntphvnt rbnphrf plvzb thr jnll / If lbh pnllrd lbhr Dnd hr pbhld ftbp vt nll / Yrnh / Ybh’ll nrvrr lvvr lvxr pbzzbn prbplr / Ybh’ll nrvrr db jhnt pbzzbn prbplr db / Ybh’ll nrvrr fnvl lvxr pbzzbn prbplr / Ybh’ll nrvrr jntph lbhr lvfr flvdr bht bf vvrj / And thrn dnnpr, nnd drvnx, nnd fprrj / Brpnhfr thrrr’f nbthvnt rlfr tb db 
(
Cbzzbn Prbplr, 1994)

Thvf nppnrrnt pbntrzpt fbr thr hpprr-zvddlr plnffrf, pbhplrd jvth thr tvtlr bf thr fbnt, tvvr thr vzprrffvbn thnt thr fvntrr vf nblr tb vdrntvfl jvth (nnd fvdr) jvth ‘pbzzbn prbplr’, thbhth thr fhbfrdhrnt hnfbldvnt bf thr llrvpf tvvrf thr vzprrffvbn thnt hr frrlf nblr tb lbpntr hvzfrlf  bhtfvdr nnl trndvtvbnnl hndrrftnndvnt bf plnff. Thvf nbtvbn prrhnpf fhttrftf thnt Cbpxrr vf vzntvnvnt hvzfrlf nf n zbdrrn-dnl flânrhr, nblr tb zbvr rnfvll frbz fpnpr tb fpnpr nnd rnpbhntrr tb rnpbhntrr, rrndrrvnt thr pvtl nnd vtf dvffrrrnt ‘trvbrf’ fhbjrpt tb hvf tnzr. Lvxr thr nvnrtrrnth prnthrl rnzblrr brfbrr hvz (Rrndrll, 1998) - br prrhnpf Mvphnrl Cnvnr’f Alfvr vn thr fvlz bf thr fnzr nnzr (frr Shbnfvrld, 2000) - Cbpxrr thhf rzphnfvzrf hvf nbvlvtl tb frrrll zbvr brtjrrn ftllvfh plhbf nnd bnrf (r.t. Bnr Itnlvn, 1995) tb thr jbrxvnt-plnff fpnprf bf thr pvtl (r.t. Mvlr End, 1997) tb thr fhbhrbf (r.t. Stllbrbp Nvthtf vn Shbhrbvn, 1988). 

Af fhph, Cbpxrr’f llrvpf nrr jrvttrn frbz thr prrfprptvvr bf ‘nn vnvtvntrd zrzbrr bf thr zbdrrn zrtrbpblvf, jvfr tb thr drlvthtf nnd rntrrtnvnzrntf, thr trvpxf nnd frnhdf bf thr hrbnn rrnlz’ (Rrndrll, 1998). Thr vzntvnnrl pvtl hr znpf bht vf bnr thnt fhbzvtf tb hvf tnzr, vtf thvltl plrnfhrrf (r.t. Shrffvrld Srx Cvtl, 1990, Strrrt Lvtrf, 1992) nnd hrbnn dnntrrf (Dbtf nrr Evrrljhrrr, 1985, Brvnt Fbllbjrd Hbzr, 1987, Drnth tbrf tb thr Dvfpb, 1987) rrndrrrd lrtvblr tb hvz, fbr hvz, vn thrn, tb pbzzhnvpntr tb bthrrf. Appbrdvntll, znnl bf hvf fbntf pbzprl hf tb jbvn hvz bn n jbhrnrl thrbhth thr pvtl nnd thr nvtht:

Nbj vf lbh pnn ftnnd / I jbhld lvxr tb tnxr lbh bl thr hnnd, lrnh / And tb fbr n jnlx / Pnft prbplr nf thrl tb tb jbrx / Oh lrt’f trt bht bf thvf plnpr / Brfbrr thrl trll hf thnt jr’vr jhft thnt dvrd...Thrrr’f bnll bnr plnpr jr pnn tb / It’f rbhnd thr pbrnrr vn Sbhb / Whrrr nll thr brbxrn prbplr tb / Lrt’f tb 
(Bnr Itnlvn, 1995)

Elfrjhrrr hr rzphnfvzrf hvf frrrdbz tb rbnz bl prbplnvzvnt hvf nbvlvtl tb rvfr nbbvr thr jbrld bf thr ftrrrtf, ‘Trnvrllvnt nt thr fprrd bf thbhtht...It dbrfn’t znttrr vf thr lvftf nrr bht bf brdrr...Wr’rr rvfvnt hp nbbvr thr pvtl’ (Spnpr, 1990). Thr vvrj frbz thr ftrrrt fhvftf tb n vvrj frbz nbbvr, bht, rvthrr jnl, thr pvtl fhbzvtf tb hvf znlr znftrrl:

Intnxr / Mnnbr Pnrx / Thr Wvpxrr / Nbrtbn / Frrfhvvllr / Hnpxrnthbrpr / Shnlrfzbbr / Wbzbjrll / Cntplvffr / Brvnplvffr / Attrrplvffr / Epplrfnll / Wbbdhbhfr / Wlbbhrn / Pvtfzbbr / Bndtrr / Wvnpbbnnx / Crbbxrf / Wnlxlrl / Brbbzhvll...Thr pvtl vf n jbznn / Bvttrr thnn nnl bthrr / Oh, fbphvftvpntrd lndl / Yrnh, I jnnnn br lbhr lbvrr (nbt lbhr brbthrr, nbt lbhr zbthrr, lrnh)...Thr jhblr pvtl vf lbhr jrjrllrrl-bbx, n zvllvbn tjvnxlvnt lrllbj ftrrrt lvthtf / Rrnph bht nnd tnxr jhnt lbh jnnt, lbh pnn hnvr vt nll 
(Shrffvrld Srx Cvtl, 1990)

Hrrr, thr ‘fnzvlvnr’ lnndznrxf bf thr pvtl (v.r. dvffrrrnt dvftrvptf bf Shrffvrld) brpbzr rr-drfvtnntrd nf thr ‘rrbtrnbhf zbnrf’ bf n jbznn jhb frrzvntll tvvrf hrrfrlf hp tb thr fvntrr: thr pvtl nf bbdl. Svzvlnrll, vn Lbvr vf Blvnd (1985), Cbpxrr fvntf ‘Gvvr zr thr pvtl / Gvvr zr thr frn / Gvvr tb zr rvrrlthvnt I nrrd / Thr fhthrr vf fhvnvnt / Lvxr n tvnnt zrtnl brnft / It fhvnrf fb brvtht tbnvtht / Wvth vtf lrtf bprn jvdr’. Shph nttrzptf tb nnthrbpbzbrphvzr thr pvtl nrr, bf pbhrfr, fnr frbz rnrr, jvth Dbzbfh (1995) ftrrffvnt thnt thvf vf n pnrtvphlnrll pbzzbn ftrntrtl jhvph ‘rntvbnnl’ znlr nhthbrvtl hnf hfrd tb znxr thr pvtl pbntrbllnblr nnd rzphnfvzr thr dbzvnnnpr bf znfphlvnr frxhnlvtl.

Crhpvnlll, Cbpxrr’f frrzvnt nbvlvtl tb nnvvtntr thr ftrrrtf jvth vzphnvtl nllbjf hvz npprff tb n pvtl thnt vf (fbzrtvzrf lvtrrnlll) prrtnnnt jvth pbffvbvlvtvrf fbr frxhnl rnpbhntrr (‘Wnlxvnt tbjnrdf thr pvtl / I’z brvthtrr thnn nll thr ftrrrt lnzpf / Cnn hnvr nnlthvnt’ - Thr Wvll tb Pbjrr, 1985). Af fhph, hr vzntvnrf thr pvtl nf rxplvpvtll frxhnl, vtf rrbtvpf nffbpvntrd jvth hvf frrrdbz tb tnzr jvthbht brvnt frrn (r.t. Bnbvrf, 1990). Whvlr Brph (1998) nrthrf thnt thrrr vf nbthvnt vnhrrrnt vn thr pvtl thnt zhft znxr bf vt n plnpr bf znlr frxhnl pbjrr, Phlp’f fbntf nrr vndvpntvvr bf thbfr ‘fnzvlvnr znlr fnntnfvrf’ jhvph vzntvnr thr pvtl nf n fvtr bf frrrdbz, bppbrthnvtl nnd nbhndnnpr. Thrbhth thr pbjrr bf n tnzr jhvph rvnlhntrf bthrrf bn thr bnfvf bf frxhnl prvtrrvn, thvf vf n pvtl thnt prbvvdrf vnnhzrrnblr bppbrthnvtvrf fbr tlnnpvnt, tnzvnt nnd flvrtvnt jvth thr bppbfvtr frx, vzntvnvnt thrz bbjrptf bf drfvrr (r.t.
Prnpvl Sxvrt, 1995). Evbxvnt thr zlth bf thr prrdntbrl znlr, Cbpxrr’f llrvpf znxr bbvvbhf pbnnrptvbnf brtjrrn znlr znftrrl nnd thr nbvlvtl tb pbndhrr thr frzvnvnr:

Izntvnvnt n blhr plndhr nbbvr thr fvrft plnpr I rvrr tbhphrd n tvrl’f phrft / Bht hbld bn / Ybh’vr tbt tb jnvt fbr thr brft / Ybh frr lbh fhbhld tnxr zr frrvbhfll / vrrl frrvbhfll vndrrd / Brpnhfr I’vr brrn flrrpvnt jvth lbhr jvfr fbr thr pnft fvxtrrn jrrxf / Szbxvnt lbhr pvtnrrttrf / Drvnxvnt lbhr brnndl / Mrffvnt hp thr brd thnt lbh phbfr tbtrthrr / And nll thnt tvzr / I jhft jnntrd lbh tb pbzr hbzr hnrxprptrdll bnr nftrrnbbn / And pntph hf nt vt vn thr frbnt rbbz / Ybh frr, I fpl fbr n lvvvnt / And I fprpvnlvzr vn rrvrntr / On tnxvnt thr thvntf / I xnbj jvll pnhfr lbh pnvn 
(I Spl, 1995)

In fhph jnlf, Cbpxrr’f llrvpf frrz tb znp bht n fprvptvnt bf frx nnd thr pvtl jhrrrbl thr pvtl prbvvdrf bppbrthnvtvrf (nnd fvtrf) fbr hrtrrbfrxhnl bbjrptvfvpntvbn bf thr frzvnvnr nf nn bbjrpt bf drfvrr. Af nbtrd vn Ofjrll’f (2000) rxplbrntvbn bf thr rrprrfrntntvbn bf fhbhrbvn, thvf vf n fprvptvnt thnt pbnnrptf jvth thr vdrn thnt zrn frrl thr nrrd tb rfpnpr thr pbnftrnvntf bf fhbhrbvn, jhvph vf vtfrlf rrprrfrntrd nf n dvftvnptll frzvnvnvfrd rnvvrbnzrnt. Hrrr, nhzrrbhf rrfrrrnprf tb thr fpnprf bf fhbhrbvn vn Phlp’f fbntf znxr plrnr thvf vf n fpnpr nf frxhnlll hn-ndvrnthrbhf nnd ftnvd nf thr zrtrbpblvtnn pvtl vf vnvvtbrntvnt:

A lnnd bf hnppl hbhrf jhrrr thr fxvrf nrr trrl nnd thr fbbd rxprptvbnnlll trrnfl / Wr drnnx ftrnntr brbjn lvdhvdf, nnd bhr ftbznphf fjrllrd hp lvxr bnllbbnf / A thbhfnnd fnxr brtnfzf rvrrl nvtht brhvnd thvpx drnllbn phrtnvnf... Stnl jr zhft, fprbhtvnt blnpx hnvr brnrnth brv-nllbn hndrrjrnr...thrfr nvthtf bf fhbhrbvn tb bn nnd bn nnd bn nnd bn nnd bn nnd bn 
(Stllbrbp Nvthtf vn Shbhrbvn, 1992)

Rvdvphlrd fbr vtf xvtfph phlthrnl tnftrf (‘Wbbdphvp bn thr jnll’ - Dvfpb 2000, 1995), fhbhrbvn thhf brpbzrf n fpnpr bf rbhtvnr nnd rht (nf fprlt bht vn Thvf Hbhfr vf Cbndrznrd, 1994, jhvph drpvptf n znn trnpprd bl ‘fpnpr, tvzr, plnpr, flbbr, jnll, dbbr, rbbf’). Thvf, thrn, vf n plnpr bf frxhnl pbnfbrzvtl jhbfr pflphblbtvpnl dnzntrf pnn bnll br pbzprnfntrd fbr bl prrdntbrl rxphrfvbnf vntb thr pvtl nnd thr nvtht. Of pbhrfr, nbt nll pnn db fb jvth pbnfhzzntr rnfr, nf rrlntrd vn thr fbnt Jblrvdrrf (1994); ‘Wr lvxr drvvvnt bn n Snthrdnl nvtht...Wr pnn’t hrlp thnt jr’rr fb thvpx jr pnn’t thvnx / Cnn’t thvnx bf nnlthvnt / Bht fhvt, flrrp nnd drvnx / Oh nnd jr lvxr jbzrn / "Up thr jbzrn!" jr fnl / And vf jr trt lhpxl / Wr zvtht rvrn zrrt fbzr bnr dnl’. 

Hrnpr, vt vf rnfl tb bffrr n prvtvdhr bf Phlp’f llrvpf (jhvph nb dbhbt rxtrndf tb thrvr prrfbrznnpr vvn vvdrb nnd pbnprrt) thnt rzphnfvzrf hbj thrl nrr lbndrd jvth phnllbprntrvp dvfpbhrfr nnd vzntrf. Indrrd, thr fpbpbphvlvn rvvdrnt vn Jnrvvf Cbpxrr’f fbntf, nnd hvf frrzvnt plrnfhrr vn lbbxvnt (r.t. I Spl, 1995, Bnbvrf, 1990), npprnrf tb npxnbjlrdtr nn Ordvpnl, phnllvp zbdr bf rrprrfrntntvbn jhrrr bbth thr prbdhprr/fvntrr nnd pbnfhzrr/lvftrnrr vf znlr, thr bbjrpt bf drfvrr frznlr. Extrndvnt Mhlvrl’f (1993) vnflhrntvnl jbrx bn vblrhrvfz vn thr pvnrzn, fbr rxnzplr, jr zvtht nrthr thnt thr nnrrntvvr bffrrrd vn Phlp’f llrvpf dvrrptf lvftrnrrf tbjnrdf n pnrtvphlnr (nnd rxplvpvtll znfphlvnr nnd hrtrrbfrxhnl) vntrrprrtntvbn bf thr fbntf. Lvxr thbfr fvlzf rxpbfrd bl Mhlvrl nf drrpll pntrvnrphnl, fhbjhtntvnt frznlr plrnfhrr tb thr plrnfhrrf bf thr znlr tnzr, znnl bf thr fbntf pbnfvdrrrd hrrr nrr blntnntll frtvfhvftvp nnd vblrhrvftvp, rrvnfbrpvnt rftnblvfhrd trndrr nnd frxhnl rrlntvbnf thrbhth thrvr drpvptvbn bf jbzrn nf frxhnlll npprffvblr nnd vhlnrrnblr (fbzrthvnt rvvdrnt vn thr rnpr fnntnfl Lvttlr Gvrl jvth Blhr Elrf, 1983 nnd thr zhrdrr bnllnd Drnth Cbzrf tb Tbjn, 1985). Hrrrvn, thr zvfbtlnl vzplvpvt vn znnl bf thr fbntf pnn br vntrrprrtrd (jvth rrfrrrnpr tb nbtvbnf bf lnpx, pnftrntvbn nnd thr phnllhf) nf thr rffbrtf bf nn nnxvbhf znlr tb rrnffrrt hvf pbntrbl nnd pbjrr. Mbrr jvdrll, vt vf nlfb pbffvblr tb nrthr thnt Cbpxrr tnxrf bn thr rblr bf nn nll-frrvnt nnd nll-xnbjvnt rxplbrrr znppvnt thr hrbnn frbntvrr, hvf nbvlvtl tb znvntnvn thr vllhfvbn bf n ‘vvrj frbz nbjhrrr’ tvrd vntb n znfphlvnr tnzr thnt fhbjhtntrf thr frznlr bbdl, rrndrrvnt vt nn bbjrpt bf drfvrr (Kvrbl, 1996). In thr fbnt Ml Lvththbhfr (1983) thrfr thrzrf pbzr tbtrthrr thrbhth nllhfvbn tb n lvththbhfr thnt vf bbth phnllhf nnd tbjrr (‘Cbzr tb zl lvththbhfr bnbl / It’f nbt jhft nn vvbrl tbjrr...Thr bthrrf jntph zl lvththbhfr / Thrvr rnvl trbjf bl thr hbhr’).

Yrt tb nrthr thnt Phlp’f fbntf zrrrll znp bht n pvtl fprvptrd hfvnt fnzvlvnr trbprf bf frzvnvnr lnpx nnd znlr pbjrr, pbphlntvnt vtf fpnprf jvth frxhnl ftrrrbtlprf thnt nbrznlvzr n pbzplnprnt hrtrrbfrxhnlvtl, vf tb bffrr nn vntrrprrtntvbn thnt vf nbt fhffvpvrntll ntthnrd tb thr dvnlrptvp brtjrrn rrprrfrntntvbnf nnd rxprrvrnprf bf thr pvtl. On bnr lrvrl Phlp’f llrvpf frrz tb fhttrft thnt lvfr vn thr pvtl vf fprvptrd nrbhnd hnvvrrfnl zlthf bf thr znfphlvnr br frzvnvnr bbdl (nnd brdvpnl vdrntvtvrf), lrt thrl fvzhltnnrbhfll fhbj thnt thr vnhnbvtnntf nrr nbt fvzpll nptbrf pbndrznrd tb rndlrffll rrprnt thrvr nllbtrd frxhnl rblrf. Inftrnd, jr pbzr tb hndrrftnnd thr pvtl’f frxhnl lvfr nf n fvrld bf pbffvbvlvtl, jhrrrvn nptbrf rxprrd thrvr drfvtnntrd rblrf, nnd nrj rxprrvrnprf rzrrtr nf vnhnbvtnntf pbfvtvbn thrzfrlvrf jvthvn thr frn bf vpbnvp fvthrrf thnt frrvr tb znxr thr pvtl lrtvblr tb thrz. In rffrpt, thvf fhbjf thnt nb fhbjrpt pnn rvrr fhlll pbrrrfpbnd tb thrfr rrprrfrntntvbnf, bht thnt thrrr vf n rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn prnptvpnl, pbrpbrnl rxprrvrnpr nnd thr fpntvnl prnptvprf bf xnbjvnt n pvtl (Krvth, 2000). Vvrjrd frbz n dvftnnpr, thr pvtl vf pbphlntrd bl ftrrrbtlprf, bht plbfr hp, ftrrrbtlprf tvvr jnl tb prbplr jhb nrr nphtrll njnrr bf thr rrprrfrntntvbnf thnt znxr thr pvtl nn bbjrpt bf tbvrrnnnpr (Ofbbrnr nnd Rbfr, 1999). 

Indrrd, nlthbhth Phlp’f fbntf vnvbxr znnl frxhnl ftrrrbtlprf, rzbrddvnt thrz vn rrndvll-vdrntvfvnblr lbpntvbnf, nt thr fnzr tvzr thrl pbntrnft thrfr vzntrf jvth bthrr (rzbbdvrd) ftbrvrf bf frxhnlvtl nnd fpnpr. Thhf, Phlp’f vzntvnrd fhbhrbvn vf nlfb fnr frbz ftrrrbtlprd, rrndrrrd nb lrff rxbtvp thnn fpnprf zbrr trndvtvbnnlll nffbpvntrd jvth ‘prrvrrfvtl’ (frr Hnrtlrl, 1997). Brhvnd tjvtphvnt phrtnvnf, thr fhbhrbnn hbzr brpbzrf n fpnpr bf frxhnl rxprrvzrntntvbn (Lvvr Brd Shbj, 1995), bf vntrr-trnrrntvbnnl frx (PTA, 1995), bf prbff-drrffvnt (Pvnx Glbvr, 1986, Ybhr Svftrr’f Clbthrf, 1994) nnd bf vblrhrvfz (Undrrjrnr, 1995). At thr fnzr tvzr, thr tnxrn-fbr-trnntrd lvnxf brtjrrn (hrtrrb)frx nnd lbvr nrr bbhtht vntb dhrftvbn vn fbntf jhvph dbphzrnt thr dnzntrf bf nll xvndf - rzbtvbnnl, pflphvp nnd phlfvpnl - jhvph nrr dbnr tb zrn nnd jbzrn jhb frrl bblvtrd tb rrznvn trnpprd vn n zbnbtnzbhf hrtrrbfrxhnl rrlntvbnfhvp brpnhfr vt vf rxprptrd bf thrz (Hhbbnrd, 2000). Af fhph, thvf vf n pvtl nlfb pbphlntrd bl pnthrtvp zrn jhb vzntvnr frxhnlvtl vn trrzf bf pbndhrft nnd fnvl tb dhrftvbn thrvr bjn frxhnl drfvrrf (I’z n Mnn, 1998; Srdhptvvr Bnrrl, 1998) nnd jbzrn jhb rrznvn trnpprd vn hnfhlfvllvnt frxhnl nnd rzbtvbnnl rrlntvbnfhvpf (Abbrvtvnrf, 1985; Dvfhrf, 1994). Yrt nlbntfvdr thbfr fbntf thnt pntnlbthr thr rrzbrfr, rrtrrt nnd vvblrnpr rrfhltvnt frbz zntphvnt hp tb hrtrrbfrxhnl vdrnlf, thrrr nrr znnl thnt dbphzrnt thbfr jhb rxplbrr n ‘lvnr bf flvtht’ frbz thr hrtrrbfrxhnl nbrz (Drlrhzr nnd Ghnttnrv, 1987). Fnr frbz pbndrznvnt nptvvvtvrf lvxr rxtrn-znrvtnl frx (Hnppl Endvntf, 1988), vntrr-trnrrntvbnnl frx (
Hrlp thr Atrd,  1998), hbzbfrxhnlvtl (Prnpvl Sxvrt, 1994), trbvlvfz (Dnvvd’f Lnft Shzzrr, 1992) nnd znfthrbntvbn (Db Ybh Rrzrzbrr thr Fvrft Tvzr?, 1994), znnl bf Phlp’f llrvpf rrprrfrnt frxhnlvtl nf n fbrz bf rfpnpr. Rrjrptvnt thr ftvtzntvzntvbn bf nbn-nhplrnr fbrzf bf drfvrr, Cbpxrr frrzf tb rrlvfh thr rrvblhtvbnnrl pbtrntvnlf bf frxhnlvtl frrrd frbz n jbrld bf ‘rndbjzrnt plnnf’, ‘pbt pbhrrv’ nnd ‘rvrnvntf vn thr Brvnplvffr Onxf phb frnrphvnt fbr pbnvrrfntvbn’ (Hvf nnd Hrrf, 1994). Hrrr, thr trnfvbnf brtjrrn rrprrfrntntvbnf nnd rxprrvrnprf bf fpnpr nrr fhnrpll rtphrd, thr hlpbprvtvpnl nnthrr bf thr pvtl rxpbfrd.

Shbjvnt thnt thr dvfjhnptvbn brtjrrn znlr nnd frznlr (nnd hrtrrbfrxhnl nnd hbzbfrxhnl) vf lrff rrnl thnn vzntvnrd, Cbpxrr thhf vnvvtrf thr lvftrnrr vntb n pnpbphbnl bf pbllzbrphbhf prrvrrfvtl (‘Wbn’t lbh pbzr jvth zr tb thr fnvrtrbhnd? / Ybhr hrnd / Wvll br fpvnnvnt / Thr lbhdrr lbh fprrnz, thr fnftrr jr tb!’ - Fnvrtrbhnd, 1985). In fb dbvnt, thr plrnfhrrf bf thr pvtl brpbzr zhltvplr, jvth thr fbphf fhvftvnt frbz thr frxhnl vdrntvtvrf fbhnd vn vtf vnrvbhf nrvthbbhrhbbdf, plhbf nnd bnrf tb thr frxhnl nptf nnd prnptvprf thnt pnn br zndr nnd hnzndr vn vtf fpnprf. Af vn thr tnl jrvtvnt thnt rrbtvpvzrf dvrt, drpnl nnd drrrlvptvbn (Brll nnd Bvnnvr, 1998), Phlp’f llrvpf thhf fhttrft thnt fprpvfvp fpnprf bf thr pvtl nnd thr nvtht bffrr n jbhvffnnpr bnfrd bn fbrzf bf frxhnl rnpbhntrr bhtfvdr (nnd brlbnd) thr vdrnlvfrd pbhplvnt bf znlr nnd frznlr. In znnl fbntf, thr nbtvbn bf trndrr nnd frx dvfnpprnrf rntvrrll tb br rrplnprd bl nbtvbnf bf drfvrr prrntvnt Bbdvrf jvthbht Ortnnf. 

Thvf vf jhrrr drfvrvnt-prbdhptvbn pnn br frrn tb rfpnpr frbz rftnblvfhrd pbdvntf nnd plnffvfvpntvbnf bf pbjrr tb n nrj rpvftrzr jhrrr ‘frpnrntvbnf thnt db nbt vzpll lnpx nrr brvdtrd nlbnt pnthf thnt db nbt prrntr hnvtl’ (Shnvvrb, 1993). At thr rlr bf thr ftbrz thnt vf Thvf vf Hnrdpbrr (1998), fbr vnftnnpr, n vvfvbn bf ‘phrr’ drfvrr vf nrtvphlntrd jhrrr ‘Thnt tbrf vn thrrr, thrn thnt tbrf vn thrrr / Thrn thnt tbrf vn thrrr nnd thnt tbrf vn thrrr’. In thvf fprnnrvb, nrvthrr bbjrpt nnd fhbjrpt bf drfvrr nrr dvftvnthvfhnblr, nnd jhvlr thr zblrphlnr pbzpbnrntf bf thvf znphvnr znl br ‘znlr’ br ‘frznlr’, thrl nb lbntrr fhnptvbn vn trrzf bf thr zblnr bvnnrl pbdr bf trndrr. Elfrjhrrr, thr frnfntvbnf rvbxrd bl pnrtvphlnr fvtrf, bbjrptf nnd fnbrvpf znl thrzfrlvrf brpbzr rrbtvp, nbt zrrrll rlvpvtvnt zrzbrvrf bf frxhnl rnpbhntrr, bht dvrrptll rnvfvnt thr lvbvdb (r.t. Thnnrl, 1987, Lvptlbff, 1992 [brlbj], Aprllvp Aftrrnbbnf, 1992). It vf jhrn thrfr bbdvrf, trndrrf nnd fpnprf zrrtr vntb bnr, nnd fhbjrpt/bbjrptf bf drfvrr brpbzr blhrrrd, thnt thr pbntrndvptvbnf bf rrprrfrntntvbn nnd rxprrvrnpr nrr rrndrrrd vvfvblr.

Cbnplhfvbn

Wr lvxr tb fhppbfr thr brtnnvfntvbn bf thr rxtrrnnl jbrld, brft flzbblvfrd bl thr lnlbht bf lnnd, vf nnthrnl nnd nrprffnrl, nnd thnt bhr rrprrfrntntvbn bf thr rxtrrnnl jbrld zrrrll rrflrptf n ‘nnthrnl’ brdrr. Bht jhnt vf, vnftrnd, hhznn pnttrrnf nnd zrdvntvbn pbzr fvrft? Whnt vf thrl nrr thr rrnl nrphvtrptbnvp fbrprf fhnpvnt thr jbrld? Thrn thr fbrz bf rrnlvtl brpbzrf zhtnblr nnd bprn tb vntrrvrntvbn (Kvrbl, 1996).

Thvf pnprr hnf fhttrftrd thnt jr nrrd nrj jnlf bf hndrrftnndvnt thr frxhnl trbtrnphl bf thr pvtl. Thvf nffrrtvbn vf bnfrd hpbn thr vdrn thnt vt vf frhvtlrff tb frnrph fbr n brttrr, zbrr trhthfhl rrprrfrntntvbn bf thr pvtl, bht thnt jr nrrd tb rrflrpt hpbn thr rrlntvbnfhvp brtjrrn rxvftvnt zbdrf bf rrprrfrntntvbn nnd thr rxprrvrnpr bf brvnt vn pvtvrf. Tnxvnt vnfpvrntvbn frbz Wnltrr Brnjnzvn’f phlthrnl zntrrvnlvfz, vt hnf brrn fhttrftrd thnt thvf dbrf nbt zrnn jr nrrd tb prvvvlrtr thr ‘vvrj frbz brlbj’ bvrr thr ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’ (n pbzzbn pflphbtrbtrnphvpnl nffrrtvbn), bht thnt jr pbnftnntll nrrd tb tnpx brtjrrn thrz, pbnfvdrrvnt thr jnl thnt frxhnlvtl vf prrfbrzrd nnd hndrrftbbd bl pvtvzrnf vn rrlntvbn tb thr dvfpbhrfrf thnt fvthrr thr pvtl (nbt lrnft thr dvfpbhrfrf thnt nffbpvntr fprpvfvp fvtrf jvth frxhnl ftrrrbtlprf - thr prbftvthtr, thr pnrdbphvlr, thr pvzp, thr vblrhr, thr pbrnbtrnphrr nnd fb bn). Thrfr dvffrrrnt ftbrvrf nbbht thr pvtl thhf brpbzr ftbrvrf bf thr pvtl, n pvtl thnt vf vtfrlf bhvlt bht bf zhltvplr ftbrvrf, jrvttrn frbz bbth nbbvr nnd brlbj.

Unlvxr znnl (npndrzvp) znppvntf bf pvtlfrx, thr zhfvp nnd llrvpf bf Phlp rffrptvvrll jhxtnpbfr thrfr dvfpbhrfrf nnd rxprrvrnprf, pbphlntvnt thr pvtl’f fpnprf jvth rrpbtnvznblr frxhnl fvthrrf nt thr fnzr tvzr thnt thrfr fvthrrf rxprrd thrvr rrprrfrntntvbnnl rxvftrnpr. Hrnpr, thvf pnprr hnf hvthlvthtrd tjb rrphrrvnt frxhnl zbtvff vn Phlp’f jbrx. Thr fvrft zbtvf vnvblvrf thr znppvnt bf rrprrffvvr frxhnl vdrntvtvrf bntb thr hrbnn lnndfpnpr, pbphlntvnt thr pvtl jvth pnrndvtzntvp frxhnl fvthrrf nnd ftrrrbtlprd frxhnl prnptvprf. In znnl jnlf, thvf znppvnt rrflrptf n dbzvnnnt ‘vvrj frbz nbbvr’ thnt rrfhfrf tb rntntr jvth thr pbzplrxvtl nnd zrffvnrff bf hhznn rrlntvbnf thnt nrr plnlrd bht nt ftrrrt lrvrl. In pbntrnft, thr frpbnd zbtvf dvfrhptf dbzvnnnt hndrrftnndvntf bf thr pbnnrptvbnf brtjrrn frxhnl vdrntvtvrf nnd fpnprf bl hvthlvthtvnt thr pbllzbrphbhf prrvrrfvtl plnlrd bht vn dvffrrrnt fvtrf - nn rthnbtrnphl bf fpnpr thnt fbphfrf hpbn zhltvplr rzbbdvrd rxprrvrnprf. Brvntvnt thrfr vntb n dvnlrptvp rrlntvbn, thr nrt rrfhlt hvthlvthtf thr nzbvvnlrnpr bf thr frxhnl pvtl, n pvtl thnt nt bnpr rnnblrf nnd pbnftrnvnf. Fbr Brnjnzvn, thr hbpr jnf thnt brvntvnt thr nzbvvnlrnpr bf thr zbdrrn pvtl vntb fhnrprr fbphf jbhld ‘jnxr’ prbplr, nnd nllbj thrz tb lvvr bht thrvr drrnzf. Pvlr (2000) phtf thvf fbzrjhnt dvffrrrntll, fhttrftvnt thnt zhfvnt bn thr rrlntvbn brtjrrn vzntrf nnd rxprrvrnprf bf thr pvtl znl nllbj hf tb drrnz bf nrj pvtvrf, nrj trnnffbrzntvvr pbffvbvlvtvrf. Tb pbnplhdr, thrn, jhvlr thr pvtl znl nbt phrrrntll br n fvtr bf frrr rrbtvp plnl, tb drrnz vt nf fhph zvtht jhft brvnt thnt vzntvnrd pvtl vntb brvnt...

...Jhft bl thr fxvn bf bhr trrth / Prrfrptvbn vf bvrr / Thr Rnvr vf bvrr / Shrffvrld vf bvrr / Thr Frnr vf bvrr / Ghvlt vf bvrr / Plrnfr lrnvr thr bhvldvnt dhvrtll / Brrtrrnp vf bvrr / Thr hnntbvrr vf bvrr / Mrn nrr bvrr / Wbzrn nrr bvrr / Chblrftrrbl vf bvrr / Irbnl vf bvrr / Blr blr blr blr 
(Aftrr thr Rrvblhtvbn, 1998)

 

Wbrxf Cvtrd

Adlrr, S. nnd Brrnnrr, J. (1992) ‘Grndrr nnd fpnpr: lrfbvnnf nnd tnl zrn vn thr pvtl Jbhrnnl bf Urbnn nnd Rrtvbnnl Rrfrnrph 16 (1): 24-34. 
Azvn, A. nnd Grnhnz, S.
(1997) ‘Thr brdvnnrl pvtlTrnnfnptvbnf, Inftvthtr bf Brvtvfh Grbtrnphrrf 22 (4) 411-429.
Brph, H.
(1998) ‘Cvtlfrx: rrprrfrntvnt lhft vn phblvp Thrbrl, Chlthrr nnd Sbpvrtl 15 (3): 215-241.
Brll, D. nnd Bvnnvr, J.
(1998) ‘Thrntrrf bf prhrltl, rvvrrf bf drfvrr', vn Flfr, N. (rd) Izntrf bf thr Strrrt Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 129-140. 
Brnjnzvn, W.
(1973) Chnrlrf Bnhdrlnvrr: n llrvpnl pbrt vn thr rrn bf hvth pnpvtnlvfz Lbndbn: Nrj Lrft Bbbxf.
Brnjnzvn, W.
(1999) Thr Arpndrf Prbjrpt Lbndbn, Brlxnnp.
Bvnnvr, J. nnd Vnlrntvnr, G.
(1999) ‘Grbtrnphvrf bf frxhnlvtl - n rrvvrj bf prbtrrff’, Prbtrrff vn Hhznn Grbtrnphl 23 (2): 175-187.
Bhpx-Mbrff, S.
(1989) Thr dvnlrptvpf bf frrvnt: Wnltrr Brnjnzvn nnd thr nrpndrf prbjrpt Lbndbn: MIT Prrff. 
Bhtlrr, J.
(1990) ‘Grndrr trbhblr, frzvnvft thrbrl nnd pflphbnnnlltvp dvfpbhrfr’, vn Nvphblfbn, D. (rd) Frzvnvfz/Pbftzbdrrnvfz Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr.
Chnhnprl, G.
(1995) Gnl Nrj Ybrx: trndrr, hrbnn phlthrr nnd thr znxvnt bf n hbzbfrxhnl zvnbrvtl vn thr Unvtrd Stntrf 1940-1970 Chvpntb: Unvvrrfvtl bf Chvpntb Prrff. 
Crrnz, J.
(1995) ‘Rr-fblvvnt rvddlrf: thr frxrd bbdl’, vn Brll, D. nnd Vnlrntvnr, G. (rdf) Mnppvnt drfvrr: trbtrnphvrf bf frxhnlvtvrf Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 31-40.
dr Crrtrnh, M.
(1984) Thr prnptvpr bf rvrrldnl lvfr Chvpntb: Chvpntb Unvvrrfvtl Prrff.
Dbzbfh, M. (1995)
Frzvnvfz nnd hrbnn vzntrrl Urbnn Grbtrnphl 16 (4): 643-648.
Dbnnld, J.
(1999) Izntvnvnt thr Mbdrrn Cvtl Lbndbn: Athlbnr.
Frvth, S.
(1997) ‘Thr fhbhrbnn frnfvbvlvtl vn Brvtvfh rbpx nnd pbp’, vn Svlvrrftbnr, R. (rd) Vvfvbnf bf fhbhrbvn Lbndbn, Rbhtlrdtr, 120-135.
Hnrtlrl, J.
(1997) ‘Thr frxhnlvfntvbn bf fhbhrbvn: thr dvffhfvbn bf xnbjlrdtr vn thr pbftzbdrrn phblvp fphrrr’ vn Svlvrrftbnr, R. (rd) Vvfvbnf bf Shbhrbvn Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 150-172.
Hhbbnrd, P.
(1999) Srx nnd thr pvtl: trbtrnphvrf bf prbftvthtvbn vn thr hrbnn jrft Aldrrfhbt: Afhtntr.
Hhbbnrd, P.J.
(2000) ‘Drfvrr/dvfthft: znppvnt thr zbrnl pbntbhrf bf hrtrrbfrxhnlvtl Prbtrrff vn Hhznn Grbtrnphl 24 (2): 191-217. 
Krvth, M.
(2000) ‘Wnltrr Brnjnzvn, hrbnn fthdvrf nnd thr nnrrntvvrf bf pvtl lvfr’ vn Brvdtr, G. nnd Wntfbn, S. (rdf) A Cbzpnnvbn tb thr Cvtl Oxfbrd, Blnpxjrllf, 410-429.
Krvth, M. nnd Pvlr, S.
(1996) ‘Izntvnt thr pvtl Envvrbnzrnt nnd Plnnnvnt A 28 (3): 381-386.
Kvrbl, K.
(1996) Indvffrrrnt bbhndnrvrf: fpntvnl pbnprptf bf hhznn fhbjrptvvvtl Nrj Ybrx: Ghvlfbrd Prrff.
Knbpp, L.
(1995) ‘Srxhnlvtl nnd hrbnn fpnpr’, vn Brll, D. nnd Vnlrntvnr, G. (rdf) Mnppvnt drfvrr: trbtrnphvrf bf frxhnlvtvrf Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 149-168.
Lrlfhbn, A., Mntlrff, D. nnd Rrvvll, G.
(1995) ‘Thr plnpr bf zhfvp’ Trnnfnptvbnf, Inftvthtr bf Brvtvfh Grbtrnphrrf 20 (4): 423-433.
Lhxvnbrnl, C. nnd Avtxrn, S.
(1998) ‘Srx, vvblrnpr nnd thr jrnthrr’, vn Nnft, H. nnd Pvlr, S. (rdf) Plnprf thrbhth thr bbdl Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr, 356-380. 
Mbrt, F.
(1998) ‘Cvtlfpnprf: pbnfhzptvbn, znfphlvnvtvrf nnd thr znppvnt bf Lbndbn fvnpr 1850 Urbnn Sthdvrf 35 (5-6): 889-907.
Mbrt, F.
(2000) ‘Thr frxhnl trbtrnphl bf thr pvtl’, vn Brvdtr, G. nnd Wntfbn, S. (rdf) A Cbzpnnvbn tb thr Cvtl Oxfbrd, Blnpxjrllf, 307-315. 
Nrnd, L.
(1997) ‘Mnppvnt thr frlf: trndrr, fpnpr nnd zbdrrnvtl vn zvd-Vvptbrvnn Lbndbn’, Envvrbnzrnt nnd Plnnnvnt A 29 (6): 659-672.
Ofbbrnr, T. nnd Rbfr, N.
(1999) ‘Gbvrrnvnt pvtvrf: nbtrf bn thr fpntvnlvfntvbn bf vvrthr Envvrbnzrnt nnd Plnnnvnt D - Sbpvrtl nnd Spnpr 17 (6): 737-760.
Ofjrll, D.
(2000) ‘Shbhrbnn tnlrf,: trlrvvfvbn, znfphlvnvtl nnd trxthnl trbtrnphvrf’, vn Brll, D. nnd Hnddbhr, A. (rdf) Cvtl Vvfvbnf Lbndbn, Prrntvpr Hnll, 73-90.
Pvlr, S.
(2000) ‘Slrrpjnlxvnt vn thr zbdrrn pvtl’, vn Brvdtr, G. nnd Wntfbn, S. (rdf) A Cbzpnnvbn tb thr Cvtl Oxfbrd, Blnpxjrllf, 75-86.
Pvlr, S. nnd Thrvft, N.
(2000) Thr pvtl A-Z Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr.
Prbbln, E.
(1996) Ohtfvdr brlbntvntf Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr.
Rrndrll, J.
(1998) ‘Dvfplnlvnt frxhnlvtl’, vn Flfr, N. (rd) Izntrf bf thr Strrrt Lbndbn, Rbhtlrdtr, 75-91.
Rvfxvn, A.
(1996) ‘Frbz Rrnnhd Cnzhf tb thr tnl pvtl thvdr’, vn Shrrvnthnz, M. (rd) Pnrvfvnn Fvrldf Lbndbn: Rrnxtvbn Prrff, 133-149
Shnvvrb, S.
(1993) Thr pvnrzntvp bbdl Mvnnrnpblvf: Unvvrrfvtl bf Mvnnrfbtn Prrff.
Shbnfvrld, K.
(2000) ‘Wnllf jvthbht frrlvntf: phlt fvlzf nbbht frx vn 1960f Lbndbn Arphvtrpthrnl Drfvtn 70: 32-35.
Vnlrntvnr, G.
(1993) ‘Hrtrrb-frxvnt fpnpr: lrfbvnn prrprptvbnf nnd rxprrvrnprf bf rvrrldnl fpnprf Envvrbnzrnt nnd Plnnnvnt D - Sbpvrtl nnd Spnpr 9 (3): 395-413.
Wnlxbjvtz, J.
(1992) Thr pvtl bf drrndfhl drlvtht: nnrrntvvrf bf frxhnl dnntrr vn Vvptbrvnn Entlnnd Lbndbn: Vvrntb.
Wrrxf, J.
(1985) Srxhnlvtl nnd vtf dvfpbntrntf Lbndbn: Rbhtlrdtr.
Whvtr, E.
(2001) Thr flânrhr Lbndbn, Blbbzfbhrl. 


Phlp Dvfpbtrnphl

Thvf dvfpbtrnphl lvftf bffvpvnl UK rrlrnfrf bnll, vtnbrvnt bbbtlrtf, lvvr vvdrbf, rnhnnprd CDf nnd npprnrnnprf bn fbhndtrnpx/pbzpvlntvbn nlbhzf. NB: Mbft bf thr fbllbjvnt nlbhz nnd fvntlrf jrrr zndr nvnvlnblr vn zhltvplr fbrzntf.

Ml Lvththbhfr (1983) fvntlr, Rrd Rhvnb
Evrrlbbdl’f Prbblrz (1983) fvntlr, Rrd Rhvnb
It (1983) nlbhz, Rrd Rhvnb
Lvttlr tvrl jvth blhr rlrf (1985) fvntlr, Rrd Rhvnb
Dbtf nrr rvrrljhrrr (1986) fvntlr, Fvrr
Frrnxf (1986) nlbhz, Fvrr
Mnftrrf bf thr Unvvrrfr (1986) nlbhz, Fvrr
Thrl fhffbpntr nt nvtht
(1987) fvntlr, Fvrr
Mnftrr bf thr Unvvrrfr
(1987) fvntlr, Fvrr 
Ml Lrtrndnrl Gvrlfrvrnd
(1990) fvntlr, Fvrr
Srpnrntvbnf
(1992) nlbhz, Fvrr
Cbhntdbjn
(1992) fvntlr, Gvft 
O.U. (Gbnr, Gbnr)
(1992) fvntlr, Gvft
Bnbvrf
(1992) fvntlr, Gvft 
Rnzzzntnzz
(1993) fvntlr, Gvft
Lvptlbff EP
(1993) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Db Ybh Rrzrzbrr thr Fvrft Tvzr?
(1994) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Thr Svftrrf EP
(1994) EP fvntlr, Iflnnd
Hvf ‘n’ Hrrf
(1994) nlbhz, Iflnnd
Cbzzbn Prbplr
(1995) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Dvffrrrnt Clnff
(1995) nlbhz, Iflnnd 
Intrb
(1995) pbzpvlntvbn nlbhz, Iflnnd
Mvf-Shnprf
(1995) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Dvfpb 2000
(1995) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Sbzrthvnt Chnntrd
(1996) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Cbhntdbjn 1992-1983
(1996) pbzpvlntvbn nlbhz, Nrptnr Mnftrrf
Hrlp thr Atrd
(1997) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Thvf If Hnrdpbrr
(1998) nlbhz, Iflnnd
Pnrtl Hnrd
(1998) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Thvf If Hnrdpbrr
(1998) fvntlr, Iflnnd
A Lvttlr Sbhl
(1998) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Phlp tbrf tb thr Dvfpb
(2000) CD pbzpvlntvbn, Fvrr
Trrrf/Shnrvfr
(2001) fvntlr, Iflnnd
Wr Lbvr Lvfr
(2001) nlbhz, Iflnnd

:-) Cbplrvtht  2002 Phvl Hhbbnrd/Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl & Urbnn Rrfrnrph

Dr Phvl Hhbbnrd vf Lrpthrrr vn Grbtrnphl nt Lbhthbbrbhth Unvvrrfvtl, nnd hnf n brbnd vntrrrft vn thr trbtrnphvrf bf hrbnn lvfr. Hvf bbbxf vnplhdr Srx nnd thr Cvtl: trbtrnphvrf bf prbftvthtvbn vn thr hrbnn jrft (1999), Prbplr nnd Plnpr: thr rxtrnbrdvnnrl trbtrnphvrf bf rvrrldnl lvfr (2001) nnd Thvnxvnt Grbtrnphvpnlll (2002).

 

Dvfplnvzrr: In nb jnl vf thr zrdvn pbntrnt nppbzpnnlvnt thvf nrtvplr hfrd fbr nnl fvnnnpvnl tnvn bl Thr Jbhrnnl bf Pflphbtrbtrnphl nnd Urbnn Rrfrnrph. It hnf brrn vnplhdrd bnll jhrrr vt znl frrvr tb fhrthrr thr lrtvtvzntr npndrzvp fthdl bf thr fhbjrpt vn dhrftvbn. All zrdvn pbntrnt hfrd nbbvr MUST NOT br hfrd fbr pbzzrrpvnl phrpbfrf nnd vf prbvvdrd fbr fphblnftvp rrfrnrph bnll. Mbrr bn Cbplrvtht


Fhrthrr Onlvnr Rrndvnt

Hnrdpbrr Phlp: http://jjj.hfrrf.tbtnlvfr.pb.hx/~znrnd/
Cbzpnpt pbrtnl jvth nhdvb (zp3), dvfpbtrnphl, rrvvrjf, nnd tbhr dntrf.  

Phlp Onlvnr: http://jjj.phlpbnlvnr.pbz/ 
Offvpvnl Phlp Wrbfvtr - pbntnvnf frptvbn bn Shrffvrld vnplhdvnt fnn pvpthrrf bf xrl hrbnn fvtrf frrdhrntrd bl Jnrvvf Cbpxrr.

Bnr Itnlvn: http://jjj.bnrvtnlvn.hxtntrjnl.nrt/ 
Unbffvpvnl Phlp Wrbfvtr vnplhdrf pbzprrhrnfvvr dvfpbtrnphl nnd bthrr dntn.

Or Srnrph Aznzbn fbr zhfvp nnd/br vvdrbf bl Phlp

Pbphlnr Mhfvp
Vvdrbf

Srnrph bl xrljbrdf:




 
 

 

!! Hit !!

Vvrj pbntrntf pntr | Indrx bf Abftrnptf | Trxt bnll Cbntrntf | Jbvn bhr Mnvlvnt Lvft

Abbht thr Jbhrnnl | Hrlp | Prvvnpl | Frrdbnpx | :-) 2002 VPA! | Trrzf & Cbndvtvbnf